uttering the word "sex" most of us is the floor finish without thinking about the fact that under him as under glaze cake hidden several layers of toppings - complex engineering structures.Or that the device floor in a wooden house depends primarily on the purpose of the house and its individual rooms, the quality and capabilities of the base substrate, ie overlapping or soil.Even the highest-quality slab can not ensure the longevity of the floor, if the reason for them was not properly prepared and does not possess the required physical and mechanical properties.
How does the floor of the wooden house ↑
structures located between the base plate and the final floor covering called a draft or black floor.Device sub-floor may be different, but in any case it is a combination of th
- underlayment - receives from the cover load transfers it to the wall and distributes the base;this can be a carrier or a floor slab prepared in accordance with the ground;
- leveling layer - a dense layer, smoothing the surface of the underlying layer;if you plan to slope the floor, it also created at this stage, using a coupler or other techniques;
- intermediate layer - a layer that connects the cover to the underlying elements of the floor;
- insulating layers - provide heat, moisture and sound insulation, and their location depends on how the floor will be arranged in a wooden house, and some of the functions will be assigned to the insulating layer.
So, wooden floors in a private house on the equip-based carrier, whose role can perform ground or interfloor, plinth or basement floor.
base support - overlapping ↑
floors, furnished to the floor decks, virtually unaffected by substantial changes in temperature and humidity.After all, the microclimate in the shared spaces of the first and second floors is almost the same quite stable, and therefore the construction of the floor does not require additional heat and vapor barrier.For this type of floor insulation and longer important if on the second floor there are toilets, care should be taken of enhanced protection against possible leaks.
In the case where the floor of the wooden house shared a warm residential floor of the unheated basement or plinth, its thermal protection should be given special attention.Since the flow of warm air is directed from the top down, from the premises in the basement, the protective vapor barrier should be placed on top of the thermal insulation directly under floor finish.Otherwise, the insulating layer is wetted with condensate and waste heat-shielding properties.
device wooden floor on the ground ↑
bystrovozvodyaschihsya in the construction of wooden houses wooden floor unit on the ground is very popular: they are cheap, and their design is simple.Also, this method is widely used device of floors in basements, if they are provided by the project, and ancillary buildings for different purposes.More often than others in wooden houses equip floors on supporting pillars.
Important: The floors on the ground can be used only on dry ground!The wooden floor in the supporting pillars installed only in those cases where the construction of wooden frame walls are not laid special girders for laying the floor.Sex on supporting pillars - is not dependent on the load-bearing walls "floating" design.
Installation of the wooden floor to the supporting pillars in the following sequence.At the beginning of the underground space is removed layer of sod to a depth of not less than 50 cm, and the cavity is filled layer of crushed stone, gravel or river sand.Backfill layer and watered thoroughly compacted by ramming a special technique.After completion of the compaction level of backfill should extend above the ground around the house for about 20 cm.
The next phase - installation of the supporting pillars.As material for the supporting pillars are best used brick, not a silicate, and red.The sectional area of the support post to secure the stability of the whole structure is selected depending on its design height the higher poles, the larger cross-sectional area required.If the height of the brick supporting pillars do not exceed 250 mm, they are placed in a half-brick, and at a height of 250 mm and above - in two.Sometimes a set of concrete supporting pillars with dimensions from 400x400 mm to 500x500 mm.First, establish the pillars around the house with a pitch of 50-60 cm, carefully verifying the horizontal level, because it affects the future of a perfectly flat surface sex.After completing the installation of external supports are mounted inside.Their step, depending on the constructive solution of the future sex, may be 70-100 cm.
Important: Sometimes the construction of wooden country houses for seasonal living internal support columns are not set, and the necessary strength of the floor provide a special thick beams, which cross section is calculated atthe design of the house.
completed the installation of poles, their ends protect the layer of waterproofing, this function is performed usually 2-3 layers of roofing material, and start packing bearing beams.Bearing beams - a whole beam or beams of appropriate length, but if there is such a timber, or for whatever reason you can not use it, you can do shorter beams stykuya them on the pillars of support.Exposing beams, again carefully checked using the horizontal level, if required, they dub using wooden wedges and spacers.When all the beams will be on display, the position of pads and wedges must be secured with nails.Supporting framework for the support beams is ready, it is now possible to lay a subfloor made of wood, which may be single or double.
Important: If a wooden house to be used as a summer residence in the warm season and in the winter it will not be heated in order to prevent displacement of the supporting pillars in connection with the freezing of the soil, should be made a higher podsypku and its top layer is made of coarse gravel.
Single wooden floor ↑
simple device and operation of single wooden floor often placed in the cottages where people reside only in the warmer months.The wooden cottages small area do not always create the design of the supporting pillars, and simply mounted in the outer wall log girders intended for the arrangement of the floor.
Laying the floor in a wooden house a small area is performed in the following order.If the bearing support beams originally provided for in the design of the outer walls carcass, between them necessarily initially lay logs and then they lay a single plank floor.
If the project a wooden house provides single floor on the support post, and support beams are usually stacked to meet the requirements of this type of sexin the process of creating the structure.That is, when the distance between the support pillars 80 cm placed girders section 100x100 mm, and if the distance between the supports 100 cm, paving the beam section 120x120 mm.
If the system bearing beams meet these conditions, then right on top of them can be laid floor decking.If for some reason this condition is not met, then the bearing beams are placed at the beginning of the net lag and just lay on it flooring.Laghi - a wooden block section of 50x50 mm or 60h60mm that fits on top of the net support beams.Spacing lag is selected depending on the thickness of the board intended for laying the floor.If the thickness of decking intended for flooring, 28 mm, the joists are laid at a distance of 50 cm, while the thickness of the decking 38 mm pitch lag increased to 60 cm.
put all logs to the base beams with wedges andgaskets exhibit lag system on the level, and finally firmly fixed nails.Right on the system lag laid black floor edging boards or finishing of decking.On the subfloor is laid, any floor covering: linoleum, laminate, carpet.Finishing floor decking commonly scraped and covered with several layers of lacquer or other coating composition floor.
Single wooden floors laid summer wooden houses and other temporary or part-time facilities as thermal insulation characteristics do not play a role, and the choice of options determine the low cost and quick installation.In the capital of wooden houses, designed for permanent or periodic residence throughout the year, including the winter, it is advisable to equip the warm double wooden floors.
double wooden structure ↑
more complex than a single double wooden floor - a multi-layered structure consisting of rough planks of the edging boards paroizoliruyuschego, heat-saving and noise-absorbing layer, and finally hung finishing of decking planks.This capital-floor structure will retain a pleasant coolness in the house of hot summer and will provide a comfortable climate in the winter cold.
start laying a wooden floor double insulated design with stacking on top of lying on the supporting pillars supporting beams of the so-called cranial bars.On cranial beams and plank subfloor tightly fitting boards together .. For subfloors fit any board thickness 15-45 mm.This board can be low grade, edging board, slab, but it must necessarily be of wood sawmills, best - made of larch.That is, it must be a timber with a high resin content, pre-treated with an antiseptic.
Stacked rough floor, it is applied to the heat-shielding layer.It could be any modern heat-insulating material such as mineral wool or foam.But in the tradition of wooden house-building as a sub-floor insulation has long been used very well-proven mixture of sawdust and clay in the ratio 1: 1, moistened with a little water, which is applied to a thickness of 35-50 mm.Atop the dried clay-layer of sawdust spread a layer of fine srednekrupnogo or expanded clay.The thickness of the bulk of expanded clay layer should be 5-10 mm, but between the layer of insulation and final finishing flooring must remain a clearance of at least 10-15 mm.
At the request of a thick layer of insulation can be laid any polymer film, which perform the function of a vapor barrier, and you can start laying the finished floor of the decking.The board and the rough and finish flooring nailed to the joists, or to the cranial bars nails at an angle of 40-45 ° at a distance of 15-20 mm from the edge on each side.Finished floor plank is laid tight with a gap between two adjacent boards should not exceed 1 mm, or in the case of wood cracks of floor may appear too wide gap.
If you plan to leave the floor finish as the finishing coat, scrape and then varnished, then fasten it to the joists is better to use special nails without caps, scoring them with a metal plaque dobojnika to a depth of 3-5 mm.If the planned installation of parquet, the second, the so-called finishing flooring can be made of lower quality boards, and then observing the technology parquet floors.
Given that the design of the floor on the support pillars is not related rigid links with the rest of the structure, in order to prevent shock loads on the vertical partitions and walls, in their places of contiguity of a gap width of about 20 mm.The gaps are filled with special gaskets made of elastic material, and then decorate the plinth.
for ventilation of the space between the layers of the double floor in the corners of the finishing flooring make the through holes with a diameter of 50-60 mm, which cover the decorative grilles, visors, slightly raisedthem above the floor of 10-15 mm, so that during cleaning in the cellar is not exposed to water.For a more effective ventilation vents in the floor alone is not enough, so even in the basement of the house provide a special window or ventilation hatches.
proposed technology laying of double floor for resettlement floors in the hallway, living room, study and bedroom wooden house.In kitchens and bathrooms in the regeneration of this type of flooring will need to pay more attention to sealing waterproofing technology gaps in the joints of the floor construction and walls.