Undoubtedly, qualitatively, the base provides longevity floor, its strength, durability and aesthetic characteristics.This can be a design on joists, floor height adjustment, dry concrete or screed.In each case, the materials must comply with the functional parameters of a particular room.Therefore, the rough floor of the wooden house need to develop, adhering to certain rules, which will be discussed.
What is called the sub-floor ↑
subfloor - the concept is quite broad, which has no clear definition.It is because of misinterpretation and often confusion.
For example, the sub-floor is called the ground for laying laminate flooring, linoleum flooring.Basically, flooring arranged in sheets (OSB, particle board, plywood), as well as of boards laid on the joists.The main purpose of this
This term is also known as the lower layer of double plank floor applied at widely spaced joists and lag.This board subfloors lay diagonally.Thanks to multi-directional fiber composite coating such gains additional strength.
But there is another concept of sub-floor - the bottom layer insulated double overlap.This boardwalk serves as the retention of waterproofing and insulation.
device subfloors ↑
Sex - a kind of a suitcase with a double bottom, as the outer layer is a foundation that is called "rough sex."The state of this basic coverage depends final result: bump, track curvature or other defects in the future will inevitably manifest themselves on the front side.Therefore, a simple alignment is not enough, you need to carry out the construction process so that the subfloor "standing still", that is, does not crack, does not peel and crush to pieces.
It should be noted that the creation of a strong, stable and smooth sub-floor - not easy, but quite feasible.True, until recently, this process is perhaps the most time consuming and labor intensive stage of repair.Fortunately, new technologies have changed the situation radically, because the specialized mixes simplified device subfloors.The quality of alignment has reached a higher level, but the sand-cement screed can not be discounted.Their main trump card - the low cost (in most cases, used for the traditional leveling sand concrete).If you look into the matter and make a comparative analysis, we can understand that the small benefit: cement-sand floor has a number of drawbacks.A leveling layer of mortar step ahead: no need of reinforcement steel, does not shrink, does not flake, does not crack, and quickly sets and hardens.
Important: operating rate variances also observed (not more than 2 mm per 2 m of the surface), but subject to unconditional execution of the instruction.
rough floor - a set of layers that provide a level and solid ground under the topcoat.It consists of:
- screed - is done in the case when you need to line the bottom and hide the wires;
- waterproofing - preventing water penetration through the floor;
- underlayment - the creation of a uniform load;
- layer - a link to the underlying floor;
- heat and sound insulation.
floors on joists ↑
Today it is though not the most popular, but well-known technology.Logs - wood or plastic boards, which are arranged horizontally.
Their most important advantage - the absence of wet processes, and through the air gap wood flooring does not decay, ventilated and can be efficiently used forlaying of utilities.
Important: the distance between the bars, it is desirable to fill insulation materials.
Assembly floor on joists has its own nuances:
- observed distance between adjacent joists - 40 cm;
- correct and accurate exposure of the floor level (zero slope);
- gap to the wall (2-3 cm) - in the future it will cover skirting;
- crate mounted on the joists, above - a sheet of plywood or OSB;
- the perfect styling - vrazbezhku, if in masonry;
- edge of the plywood reinforced with a gap of 2 mm, that is, both the sheets must be on the lag.This principle eliminates the squeak;
- if the thickness of the veneer is missing, then laid another layer;
- plywood on the sides and by the lag is processed antiseptic.
adjustable floor ↑
This is a relatively new way to create a rough surface and is very relevant in the case when it is necessary to raise the level of the floor in the 2-12 cm. His device is characterized by simple installation and ease of design.These floors are used not only in private homes, in offices, too, to the same under them can be safely hide communication and mount the acoustic and thermal insulation.Most often adjustable floor used where there are large differences in height, since other methods are difficult to align.
How to make this type of subfloor?The idea is this: in plywood drilled holes and inserted to the plastic sleeve (female).Metal dowels, nails, they are attached by bolts to concrete pillar.Plywood with sleeves worn on the bolt-rack, and the bolts can be rotated by raising and lowering the sheets, that is leveling the surface in such a way.
screed - wet and dry ↑
This option is the most common, is the wet screed (concrete) and dry.Last - Charging floor, representing a multi-layered structure.First, the surface is put parovlagoizolyatsiya (Yutafol plastic film, IZOSPAN), which is fixed with adhesive tape construction.Then, a layer of 30-50 mm distributed dry filling, it can be expanded clay, fine slag, expanded perlite.Along the wall on the perimeter of the floor seam is made of elastic material, they compensate for the thermal expansion of the base and eliminate sound bridges.
top layer of a tie - plywood boards, gypsum sheets, OSB, particle board, ready modules with polystyrene foam.The sheets are stacked in two layers and sealed with glue and screws, but not necessarily offset joints.Final stage - laying finish.
Important: team screed from wood boards covered with flame retardant.
Pros dry backfill floor are obvious: speed, possibility of mounting in any period of the year, the convenience and good compensation of any unevenness in the floor.
Classical concrete screed - a more traditional option, because the materials are inexpensive and widely accessible.This draft floor with your hands (on the ground) to make simply:
- cleaning debris from the base;
- laying underlayment - gravel (thickness 10 cm) and its further consolidation;
- filling sand (10 cm) and a similar ram;
- styling heat and waterproofing - protection from the damp floor;
- applying a cement-sand plaster solution;
- alignment rule.
Following these milestones screed must dry.Drying may take a week or a month, it all depends on the layer thickness.
Classical screed allows leveling considerable differences in altitude (up to 3 cm), forms a hard surface, the most suitable for finishing with linoleum, laminate, granite.But because of the rough texture is impossible to achieve a perfect, smooth layer, so use an extra layer - finishing (self-leveling compounds).
Filling coverage - a modern solution ↑
Among the new technologies not to mention self-leveling floor - a mixture of cement, polymeric materials (synthetic resins, polyurethane), reinforcing components, which prevent the formation of microscopic cracks.Besides roughing and finishing screed in this case are the same process, which is a significant advantage.
process of creating a self-leveling floor is poured a mixture of base fluid, which is leveled with a spiked roller to remove air bubbles.
Compared with polymer concrete screed floor is thinner, so drying time is reduced.Typically, the figure indicated on the packaging, and lasts a maximum of 2 weeks.
interlayer - a guarantee of long-term ↑
structure of either sex, in particular coated laminate, carpet, flooring, provides for the substrate: polypropylene foam, extruded polystyrene, cork underlay, hardboard.Their attachment to the sub-floor can be accomplished in several ways:
- glue - it is the most popular, but its application should think in advance installation as glued underlayment is almost impossible to remove;
- double sided tape - used for plastic materials;
- termoskotch and irons for welding - created quite a hard surface;
- screws and bracket construction - method of a quick but requires skills: clips must not shoot in very deep (so as not to deform the substrate) and high (do not stick to the attachment points).
Qualitative performance of the sub-floor - the key to trouble-free operation and long floor, an important component.