When it comes to the way the device of floors of the first floor of a private house, but you do not have the necessary knowledge to form their own opinions, offer you some "educational program" for the construction of floors.So there are two options: the first - the device on the ground floor, the second - on the plates or beams.If you have to build a house, where they will live periodically (cottage, hunting lodge), as well as if the soil moist and the house is located in a cold climatic zone, the best design solution is the unit floor on beams, in other cases, the preferred device floor directlyground.The floors on the ground floor is really cheaper arranged on the beams (significant savings in construction and thermal insulation materials).Let us consider the features of the device on the ground floor.
Types of floors on the ground↑
Depending on the purpose of the premises and the climate are arranged either monolithic (concrete) floors, or floors with the underground.Design features of the screed is ideal for devices terrace, porch, garage or basement floors and the underground are better suited for the premises.The device is a monolithic multi-layered floor.Consider the sequence of layers (bottom-up).
device concrete floor on the ground ↑
- well compacted layer of clean river sand (bedding).
- layer of crushed stone or expanded clay.
- Rough concrete screed.
- thermal insulation layer.
- Fine cement.
- floor finish.
Each layer has its own functionality.A layer of river sand and a layer of expanded clay or gravel are used to prevent the ingress of moisture from the ground floor through the capillary.Sand bedding thickness must be at least 5cm.The thickness of the layer of gravel - 10cm.For better protection against moisture layer of crushed stone it is recommended to soak the bitumen.On wet soils of the second layer should be only from the rubble, concrete block in this case does not apply because of its ability to absorb water and swell.Each layer in the tab carefully compacted.
Rough concrete screed serves as a basis for waterproofing should be 6-8cm thick, it is applied on a layer of gravel, pre-coated plastic film.Plastic film in this case is not a waterproofing and applies only to the process purpose.Crushed concrete is taken shallow, and the sand of the river necessarily.Instead of roughing screed can use rubble spilling liquid cement-sand mortar, in this case, polyethylene is not applicable.
to create hydro-vapor barrier on the rough cement screed paste double layer of tar paper or plastic film, or a layer of bitumen.Hydro-vapor barrier layer must be sealed across the surface, it is a barrier to penetration of moisture from the soil in the upper layers of the cake.Damage to Hydro-vapor barrier is unacceptable, because it leads to the saturation of the floor moisture, odors, fungus, mold and premature failure of the finish flooring.
For warming the floor is laid a layer of insulation (the layer thickness depends on climate zone).As a heater can be used polystyrene, mineral wool, foam glass, and others. Most often used as insulation extruded polystyrene.It is a durable material having a low coefficient of water saturation.When compared with other types of insulation, extruded polystyrene have significantly higher crushing strength.
thermal insulation layer is covered with a finishing screed, which certainly reinforced welded wire mesh.For residential reinforcing mesh made of wire with a diameter of 3 mm and a mesh size of 10 × 10 cm.For floors, which involves increasing the load, such as in a garage, wire mesh should have a diameter of 4 mm and 5 × 5 cm cell, plate made of concrete rubble on fractions 10-20mm.The thickness of the finishing screed in residential areas should be at least 5cm, in the garage - 10cm.
If the device is supposed to floor heating (electric or water) between walls and screed laid a layer of polyurethane foam or polyethylene (1-2cm).This is done to create a thermal gap between the floor and the walls (if this is not done, then expands when heated floors and screed can be formed cracks).Since finishing screed is the foundation of the flooring, it must be flat and applied for a pre-installed beacons.
on the prepared finishing screed is placed finish flooring.As the screed is protected from moisture, the coating can be absolutely any: parquet flooring, laminate flooring, floor board, linoleum, tile, etc.
device of this pie safe, sex is well protected from moisture and frost, but at the same time, and expensive.When milder climates and dry soils may use a simplified structure on the ground floor.
thickness and appropriateness of each layer depends on the device:
- the level of groundwater at the site of construction,
- mechanical loads on the floor,
- on whether the floor heated.
If the groundwater level is less than 2m, then podsypku can not use, but instead use a rough tie spilling rubble solution.When the alleged substantial loads (more than 200 kg per m2) wire mesh reinforcement must be 4mm, in other cases - 3mm.
should be remembered that depreciation of the pie should not lead to a deterioration of its reliability, especially should not save, if you intend to use an expensive finishing of wood flooring, such as parquet or laminate.
concrete floor on the ground has undeniable advantages: it is durable, robust and relatively simple to manufacture.Mandatory insulation, because it is through the floor lost 20% of the heat the room and not the concrete protects the floor from the cold coming from the bottom.Warming necessarily for non-residential buildings (garages, sheds, barns).
height of the floor relative to the level of the foundation depends on how the base was insulated.If only insulate the walls, floor and place below the top of the cap, it is precisely at this point will freeze wall.If the cap is properly insulated, then the level of the floor may be below and above the top of the foundation.
Sex with underground ↑
device floor with the underground provides for the air gap between the floor and the ground surface (to prevent direct contact of the soil with the floor).This design is suitable in areas with high humidity of the soil (if the depth of groundwater is less than 2 meters), as well as in the case where the house is located in a cold climatic zone, or when the device floor in the house where the heating will be periodic (cottages, hunting lodges).
At the device of such floors the ground level should be below the level of the floor at 10-15 cm, which is very important.Increasing the size of the air space between the foundation and the floor leads to heat loss, while reducing the size (if the height of the underground will be less marked indicators) significantly worsen ventilation.
primer prepared as follows:
- removes the top layer of vegetation in its place poured a layer of soil that is compacted when spilled water so as to obtain a layer height of 15-20cm.
- sprinkle gravel or crushed stone and tamp it thoroughly.
- obtained on the basis of lime-coated crushed stone structure (you can replace it with construction waste, slag, brick fight).
floor structure on the ground can vary depending on the characteristics of the soil.In the bulk soil and gravel substrate, when the soil moisture, require additional insulation, consisting of two layers of roofing material, plastic film or a layer of clay.
Procedure works ↑
First established by brick columns.Bookmark brick columns under logs made taking into account the required distance endurance - 0,7-1m between them.For the construction of supports used roasted red brick (do not use sand-lime brick or artificial stone).The posts set along the perimeter and covered with roofing material for waterproofing, insulation should be attached on top of the wooden bars 3cm thick, treated with antiseptic.
next stage - laying lags.Logs are made from logs halves, they also desirable to process antiseptic.Joints lag must be above the bars.Proper positioning of the extreme lag - at a distance of 2-3 cm from the walls.Horizontal level lags checked for pads using bars of different thickness, treated with antiseptic.When laying the lag may be uneven over the horizon to 3mm.
floor on joists may differ structurally from the written options: can use metal pipes instead of columns of brick or rough floor frame may be set at the edge of the boards treated with antiseptic.
on logs laid floorboard, which is attached by nails.The boards should be tightly pressed against each other.If necessary, you can make a double wooden floor, first lay a rough layer of edging boards, then a layer of waterproofing and finishing layer of the floorboard.
Video of the construction of floors on the ground ↑
for underground requires good ventilation, which in opposite corners of the floor make the ventilation windows 10 × 10 cm, which closed bars and in the basement - a special air holes, no less than two per roomin home.