Having a private house, kitchen garden and farmland, without cellar can not do.After all, rich crops require reliable secluded village, where they could be stored without rotting and rotting.The question of the storage of vegetables, food preparations and juicy fruit is better to think at the stage of flatness suburban area or at home, then to the head about it did not hurt.Good cellar with their hands, you can build, if you know a few tricks and secrets.Read our article as Make us with intelligence and a minimum expenses.
to independently build a cellar, it is necessary to provide for a few moments: the topography site, humidity, soil
Groundwater and soil: define humidity and removes the question locations ↑
Under cellar is best to choose the most dry place, it is better if it is the area with a slope - so working with the arrangement and digging will be less.Before you make the cellar with their hands, you need to determine how close to the surface lie on your site groundwater.If you get a handle on this question, consider half the battle is already ready.You must have at least a rough idea of how deep the water reservoir are located and whether they do, know what kind of water.
Underground water reservoirs are divided into two types:
- Ground Water (formed by the condensation of atmospheric precipitation, soil percolation).
- vadose (a direct consequence of the melting of snow, prolonged rains, are seasonal in nature - such water is temporary, usually does not have a permanent make-up, went showers - past and perched).
What level of water is safe to build the cellar with their hands?- One that will not provoke the decay of your stocks.The optimal level of half a meter below a minimum level at which you plan to make your cellar floor.Thus, if perched or ground moisture is, for example, at 2,5metra from the ground, burying the house can not bury more than 2 meters.
How to determine the proximity to groundwater ↑
You can do this in two ways:
- Explore the vegetation in the area - if the territory is dominated by moisture-loving marsh grass (mother and-macheha, sedge, reed, sorrel), water near.
- Test the soil in egg and coat.This is done as follows: a hairball degreased in soapy water and dried.Take a piece of land, cleared of turf, put him six top -only that demolished the egg.The whole thing Cover pan or clay pot, sheltering shot from above the turf.The next day will see the result - if the egg is dry, and only grew moist wool, water deeply when both elements are dry, do not worry about anything.But if the condensate remains on the hair, and the egg, you can not build a basement.Note: This technique works adequately only in a stable, dry weather.
how to fight for a dry cellar ↑
If there is no choice, and in the area there is a dry area, and the cellar is still needed, you can cheat nature, win aa place for storage of inventory: before digging the pit of approximate perimeter dig pits half a meter deep and 40 cm in diameter, they will serve to collect the excess fluid.Flocked water is removed as filling pits.
Also remember: deepening the main pit is necessary and proportionate to remove headers.After reaching the desired depth, line the bottom of the cellar, good tamp the surface, put a layer of clay Mighty necessarily fat (2-3 cm is enough).Do not wait until the clay is dry, fill the surface of the 10-centimeter layer of concrete (mark not less than 300-meters).After a week or two on top lay a cement screed.Finish - a floor will support the increased moisture easily.
A couple of words about waterproofing ↑
Exterior waterproofing cellars easy - with the help of heated bitumen on the walls, ceiling and floor of the room creates a waterproof film with a thickness of 2-3 mm, which reliably protect your vegetables and harvesting of excess moisture.
For this pre-align and oshtukaturte all treated surfaces using cement mortar (sand and cement in a ratio of 1: 2), and cover powertrowel bitumen or resort to penetrating waterproofing - Penetron or Kalmatron.
If the soil is too clayey and watery, erecting an earthen castle water in the cellar with their own hands - a video on how to do this, sufficiently on the Internet.For this event you will need to sand, gravel and pipes.Drainage is installed under the floor of the underground facilities.It is better if you can make an outlet for draining water in a special water collection well or ditch.
General principles of construction ↑
Like any underground structures, it is best to dig a cellar in the summer - at a time when the water goes underground as deep as possible.Also, follow a few simple rules:
- for convenience during the concreting and waterproofing work pit do 50-60 cm wider and deeper than the area and depth of the alleged cellar;
- the best embodiment of the wall - a wall of dense monolithic concrete (in two parts sand grab a share of the cement M-500, not lower);
- wall thickness should be between 20 to 30 cm, strengthen the construction of valves or even steel wire - so your structure will be stronger;
- Insulate cellar walls from inside with mineral wool lining, of wood;the ceiling is insulated with a layer of expanded clay is usually 10-20 cm (it is also desirable to build on top of the cellar gazebo closed);
- for safe lighting wires lay in the ripple and the ceiling waterproof choose to nowhere does not whiling away;
- avoid extremes of temperature thermostat Construct or purchase ready, it will help extend the shelf life of your products.
To avoid rotting vegetables and fruit, as well as mold on the walls and the products themselves, we need to take care of the ventilation of the room.To do this in the cellar install two pipes at different levels and in opposite mestah.Kachestvennaya ventilation cellar - a very brief exhaust pipe near the ceiling and the supply air pipe at a height of half a meter from the floor.If the air still circulates poorly, you can use an ordinary fan, mounted directly on the exhaust pipe.
How to calculate the need for additional ventilation:
- The static damp cellar.
- air is always a musty, stale, breathing heavily.
- perishable products, starting to rot and "to smell."
to humidity decreased, spend time on the time cross-ventilation with quicklime.
wiring in the cellar - the question is not the last in importance, since in high humidity ordinary wire can pose a threat not only to health, but also the life of the host reserves that are stored in the cellar.Because precautions neglect in this matter should not be.Be sure to use step-down transformers, wires are used to protect metal hose corrugation.Lamps must be tight, and switches - to be outside of your underground storage.
How to poluzaglublenny cellar ↑
There are three cellars, overland, poluzaglublennye and buried.The most common and practical option recognized poluzaglublenny option.It was built quite simple:
- Ground cellar deepened to a maximum of 1 meter, which allows you to build a building, even in conditions of high humidity of the soil.
- walls constructed of concrete slabs or conventional bricks.
- The ceiling is made of slabs, protect it from moisture clay grease, roofing material is laid on top.
- Next you need to take care of ventilation, lighting and waterproofing.Also, be sure to do the drainage groove.
ventilation device cellars ↑
If you follow these truisms underground fruit and vegetable store, your crops will be safe and sound for a long time.Do not ignore the laws of physics and safety measures, and all you get.