No matter how we tried to look up and far ahead, look obstinately fix our attention on what is directly in front of the eyes and below.Perhaps this is why, having entered into an unfamiliar room, we first notice how beautiful parquet floor living room and gently laid floor tiles there in the hallway or kitchen.Our advice is to put tiles on the floor properly, will help you to create your own perfect interior of any room of your house or apartment.
Selection Rules tile floor ↑
choosing a tile floor, be sure to consider the appoi
For example, if in the hallway highest traffic density, floor covering for her must comply with class III-IV durability.
For bathroom and kitchen are especially important resistance to moisture and aggressive chemicals and for these premises is better to choose the tiles marked with AA class II-III durability.
For the living room or bedroom is unlikely to need a tile for the kitchen floor: moisture in these areas is always the norm, and therefore the choice of tiles Class II-III for which it is optimal.
thickness of the floor tiles should be at least 8-12 mm.The geometric dimensions can be chosen at its discretion, but with tiles 30x30 cm, 45x45 cm or 33,3h33,3 see the work is moving faster and possible defects styling will not be as noticeable.
prepare the ground for laying tiles ↑
to the base on which is laid topcoat, including ceramic tiles must meet the same requirements:
- reliability and durability;
- ideal geometry and smooth surface;
- good adhesion.
tiles can be placed on almost any basis: self-leveling, concrete, wood floors and the system "warm floor".If self-leveling floors, everything is clear, the other bases, depending on the species, are ready to be tiled topcoat in different ways.
How to prepare a wooden base ↑
Feel free to lay tiles on a wooden floor is possible only if its status is not in doubt: the board durable, not rotted from moisture, is not damaged by insects, fungus or mold.
reeling cracked floorboards securely with screws and drill into the floor as much as possible the vents.Lay at the base of overlapping layer of plastic film or foamed polyurethane waterproofing.On top lay a layer of gypsum fiber film sheets so that each sheet is shifted with respect to the next row of the sheet of the previous row by half: that is, start with the first row of a sheet, and the next - to cut in half.Joints seal the sheets waterproofing mastic or PVA glue, but on the surface, apply a coat of primer to improve adhesion.
If the wooden floor in very good condition, it is possible to limit its "cosmetic" alignment, strengthening over the waterproofing layer metal mesh, which will provide a strong bond with the tile.
Terms prepare concrete foundations ↑
First remove the old concrete floor with linoleum, paint and so on. E., If they are there, and with the help of the horizontal level check.If necessary, align the surface layer of the new sand-cement screed, or if the defects are minor concrete, with a metal mesh.Clean the surface of screeds against dust, put on her coat universal primer deep penetration.
Good to know!
to fresh sand-cement screed to lay tile only after 30 days or later.Ready sand and cement screeds for laying ceramic tiles is checked by making in various places of its surface a few deep scratches.If the edges are durable and do not sprinkled, concrete ready for the next stage of work.
Preparation "warm floor» ↑
In cases with a concrete or wooden base or electric water heating system "warm floor", ways to prepare the ground similar to the preparation of conventional wooden or concrete foundations, but all the work can be carried out necessarily turned off the heating system.
If the tile is used as a topcoat cable "warm floor" on heat mats, such floor ready for tiling, as soon asHeat mats are packed, checked and disconnected from the power supply.The tiles can be laid directly on the heating mats, choose the appropriate tile adhesive.
schemes and methods of laying tile on the floor ↑
Depending on whether you plan to create a multi-colored panels, or you want a simple monochrome flooring, laying tile on the floor is performed by one of the traditional schemes.If you use only one-color tiles, it is usually placed on one of three options:
- Base "seam in seam" - each following a series of tiles exactly the same as the previous one.This is the most economical and common scheme of installation.
- scheme "seam in seam" diagonally.The rows of tiles are laid at an angle of 45 °.This arrangement of tiles looks very interesting, but its implementation is associated with too much consumption.
- «The Extension" - seams every next ryadya shifted relative to the previous one.This scheme has been widely used in the medieval architecture, popular today with the creation of the interior in the style of various eras.
tile in two colors can be laid at the base or diagonal patterns "seam in seam" staggered or "stripes".These simple linear scheme can be used to create all sorts of multi-colored panels on the floor, or by combining the traditional schemes, create your own version of the author's ceramic tiles of different colors and sizes.
There are many ways to start laying tile, but three of them are the most popular.
Starting from the most visible corner ↑
method is most often used when laying tiles on the basic scheme as it allows to use the maximum number of whole tiles in visible places.Tile, which have to be cut, you can put where will stand furniture or other interior details.Having selected this option, carefully lay the first three tiles and their well-Align from them depends largely on the quality of styling the surface.
We start from the middle of the wall ↑
method is suitable when using the tiling scheme "in Extension."Determine the middle of the wall, from which plan to lay floor tiles - a "zero" point of laying the first tile.Each Lay the next row of the right and left relative to the center line of the first tile, do not forget to follow the horizontal: the edges of two adjacent tiles need to be on the same level.
laying tile from the center of the room ↑
method is ideal for laying ceramic tiles in rooms with complex geometry, bay windows, columns, sophisticated niches, as well aswhen you create a multi-colored panels on the floor and ornaments in the center of the room.To implement it on the floor swipe perpendicular to each other and two lines at a point of intersection lay the first tile and the rest of Lay her in the direction of the walls in accordance with the scheme of panels or ornament.
Layout floor before laying ↑
before laying tiles on the floor, carefully mark the area in accordance with the selected scheme and method of installation.
If it is laying on the angle, select the most visible and free levels and draw on the floor of an equilateral triangle in the top of which lay the first tile, and allfollow right along the other two sides.
when laying the floor tiles diagonally, to mark the starting point of laying the wall with a window so that the rows of tiles laid in parallel to the windows are located.Failure to do so too conspicuous, and a reference point on the wall is unreliable because the angle between them are not always perfectly straight, and the wall itself may not be too smooth.
marked the floor, consider in detail all the possible fines.Note that near the fireplace, columns or other fixed element of the interior will likely have to cut the tiles, but the fragments must lie symmetrically.
finished counting, put "dry" without glue several rows of tiles and see if you are satisfied with the drawing and you do not make a mistake with the scheme and the method of installation.If you do not like everything, consider other options in order to prevent irreparable marriage.
adhesive for floor tiles ↑
For laying ceramic tiles using traditional cement-sand mortar, which is prepared in a ratio of parts of cement and sand 1: 3.The layer thickness of the solution may life of 5-20 mm, depending on the condition and uneven ground.
modern market offers a variety of polymer-adhesives for ceramic tiles, offering the best adhesion and tile floor coverings ensure a very high strength of the adhesive layer with a thickness of just 3.8 mm.
sale modern tile polymer-adhesives in the form of dry mixes that are diluted before use enough water to the desired consistency.For particularly complex cases, such as high humidity areas, on the basis of non-removable ink, and so on. E., Have developed special cement-free adhesives.When laying the tiled floor in an unheated room, you can pick up cold-resistant tile adhesive.
Good to know!
When laying tiles on a wooden floor mix sand and cement, polymer adhesive with PVA glue and bring the water to the desired consistency.Before laying the prepared glue is applied on the tile and the base so that the line of the toothed spatula placed at different angles - this will provide maximum adhesion and floor tiles.Recommendations
future tilers ↑
Given that cement-sand mortar and polymer-blend for a tile grasped for 20-30 minutes, it is necessary to prepare them in small portions.For half an hour only experienced professional time to put no more than three rows of tiles.Before laying the tiles, soak for 20-30 minutes in warm water or in a 1% solution of calcium chloride or aluminum chloride - it will improve the adhesion of the tiles.
on preliminary lined with floor tiles laid scheme start, causing a spatula and smooth layer of glue and press it into the tile by pressing a hand or gently tapping with a rubber mallet.
If you have tile beacons align first tile on them, and each of the following is equal to the previous one, while complying with the help of restrictive crosses the same width joints, and periodically checking the horizontal.
Having laid some tiles, immediately remove any excess solution between them with a damp cloth.To remove excess adhesive or other polymer-soak a cloth in a solvent.If the tiles are laid in a poor or "dropped" from the horizontal, it must be removed from the adhesive layer, and smooth with a spatula to lay a new adhesive pad and re-laid tiles.
invest Each time a layer of adhesive area slightly larger perimeter tiles and touch checks if the horizontally along the edge and in the crosshairs of every four tiles.
Good to know!
can not lay a adhesive mortar on the corners of tiles, if there is a void - it will degrade the strength of the tiled floor in the operation.Try to push the tiles by hand or with a hammer, a mallet in a solution until you hear no ringing when tapped, and a thud.
Trimming and grouting ↑
When laying the extreme series and the design flooring from stationary interior elements and devices can not do without cutting tiles.Qualitatively perform this operation possible, using portable plitkoreznym machine: it ensures the accuracy of the desired size to 1 mm.The curved surface can be cut in the tile grinder.
If you you do not have such technological devices, you can use an ordinary glass cutter, but when working with thick tile in this case, get ready for the challenges: small or narrow strip of tiles have to "bite" cutters or pliers.
A day after the laying of the tiled floor you can start grouting trowel special mixture corresponding to the color of the tile.Before performing this operation is not recommended: if the tile adhesive is prone to solidification shrinkage and can lead to premature cracking jammed joints.
Prepare trowel mix, bringing its consistency of sour cream until thick.Fill the mixture between the tiles by sliding a spatula and gently pushing the herringbone structure of the joints.Remove excess grout, having a spatula along the seam.The thickness of the layer of grout can trim a segment of soft cable.An hour later, the remains of the trowel mixture can be washed with a damp sponge.
Laying tiles: a video ↑
To operate your new tiled floor will be ready in 4-5 days.That's how much time is required to complete drying of the tile adhesive.