In modern country houses, duplex apartments and offices, hotels and restaurants, private luxury staircase to the second floor are almost always the most spectacular element around which the entire interior.However, this is a serious engineering structure, designed to provide a comfortable and safe passage of residents or guests rooms on the second floor.
types and selection criteria stairs to the second floor ↑
most unusual at first glance staircase to the second floor can be one of three types:
- spiral staircases;
- combined stairways - arched, curved, combining elements of the first two types.
Despite the importance of the role of the aesthetic in the interior stairs, the configuration of the architectural design selected based on the premise of free space, which can be identified by its installation.
Unfortunately, not always liked the stairs of a glossy magazine can be installed in a specific room of the house, without losing ergonomics.
stairway - ergonomics in action ↑
most common and easy to manufacture ladders, which may consist of one or several marches - straight pieces with steps.Ergonomically one flight of stairs should not contain more than 16 degrees comfortable height and width.Odnomarshevye stairs are like small country houses, if the area and height of the room allows to fulfill this requirement, or as a connecting element between the two levels, located in different functional areas of the room.
spacious and high-rise buildings to build on the second floor FLOATING intermediate pads or rotary member of the winders.In zavisimoti geometric shape in plan, such ladders are -shaped or U-shaped.
L-shaped staircase - two flights of stairs, located in two adjacent walls of the room at an angle of 90 °, the combined platform, or turningsteps.Option is good for square halls or rooms where the walls of a cupboard furniture, storage systems, and the center of the room is left free for the passage to other areas of the house.
U-shaped stairway can afford the owners are very spacious halls and living rooms in country mansions, hotels, offices.In this case, the stairwells are angled 180 ° relative to each other and connected platform or less commonly group winders.
spiral staircase - small rooms ↑
design a support rod around which climb up the spiral steps.In terms of ergonomics, a spiral staircase to the second floor - inconvenient and unsafe, but it has a right to exist, as in a small room does not fit any other ladders.Area classic spiral staircase in terms rarely exceed 1 square meter, it can be built anywhere in the room, even in the center, and its decorative look will give the interior a special charm and even mystery.
Combined staircase - a balance in all aspects ↑
Usually it curved arched architectural structure, combining elements of the march and a spiral staircase that rises gently bending at different angles.
construction combined exclusive stairs most often dictated not so much by the structural relevance, ambition as a designer or homeowner.However, the most beautiful staircase to the second floor more often than other types are just combined.
materials and design interior stairs ↑
for the construction of internal interior stairs are traditionally used
Each of these materials is good by itself or in combination with each other.Thanks to modern technologies in the construction of the ladder are increasingly appears the glass and new finishing materials.
options Wood ↑
tree is most popular in interior ladder construction: a living natural material easily processed in natural or colored form fits perfectly into the interior of any style, but, most importantly, create in the house a special atmosphere of warmth and comfort.
Odnomarshevaya stairs between the floors of pine - the best budget solution for a small garden, and a respectable mansion complex staircase structure of hard and exotic wood often serves as a central element of the interior living room or hall.Particularly spectacular wooden staircase to the second floor, in the decoration that combine several types of wood.
Wooden ladders are almost free from defects, apart from the need for periodic updating paint and creaking steps to avoid that it is possible not all the masters.
Features stone stairs ↑
natural or artificial stone staircases such is only used for the lining.
bearing structures of various shapes from simple marching to curved or even spiral assembled from prefabricated concrete blocks or cast in specially designed formwork.The main advantages of stone stairs - resistance, durability and fire safety.
Metal stairs - a modern solution ↑
versatile, strong and durable metal stairs to the second floor, in which the metal can serve as the material for the supporting structure and independent element of interior.Gloss chrome-plated or stainless steel handrails do not seem soulless and cold in a fashionable, minimalist interiors.Stairs made of metal with wooden steps and wrought iron fences seem light and airy as an integral part of any classic interior.The ductility of the metal allows us to give the frame of any shape, and sheathe it can be by any finishing materials - wood, stone, and so on. D.
Photo interesting solutions in the interiors of different styles ↑
No matter what kind of material used for the construction of load-bearing frame, design ladderthe second floor is created using those or other finishing materials.Take a look at a slightly different angle on the stairs to the second floor - the photo interesting design decisions will change your perception of the usual materials:
rules and design standards in the construction ↑
Noexecution of decorative and practical function, any stairs - is an engineering construction, which consists of a series common to all kinds of products features.To properly build a ladder to the second floor, it is necessary according to the building code to calculate or to pick up the appropriate support structure, the angle of elevation, height and width of steps.
support structures ↑
basis staircase bearing structure that ensures its stability and security, are supporting elements - stringers, stringer or rails and racks.
stringers - a piece beam projections, which are mounted on top of stage.
Bowstring - support beam supporting the stage from the side and from below.
Bolz - the German word with means "pin, pin," and the support member is a bolt connection for mounting directly onto the wall of steps.
Reception - central vertical support of the spiral staircase.
The traditional interiors are usually dominated by the respectable Saddle stairs or bowstrings a classic spiral staircase design.Innovative design projects of stairs to the second floor can be combined in one product, two supporting elements: for example steps without risers can be fastened to the wall rails and the outer edge of their support string - a constructive solution for straight and curved transparent stairs in the loft-style, high-techminimalism.Sometimes
ladder support structure is selected depending on the material used.For wooden stairway perfect stringers and metal easier to make reference designs for spiral and curved staircases.
properly erect stage ↑
main functional structural element of stairs.To climbing stairs it was comfortable, it is important to observe the ratio of tread depth and height of the stage.Tread called horizontal part of stage, and the height, ie the distance between the two neighbors stairs - a riser.Planck riser stairs in some models may not be available.
considered comfortable climbing stairs, does not require an artificial increase or decrease the step length or level of instep.Designers stairs calculated the options for the optimum ratios of tread depth and height of the stage, which can be used in the construction of any ladder groups 16:30 cm;17:29 cm;See 18:28 and 19:29 cm. The last ratio of 19:29, corresponding to 45 th shoe size, considered ideal.
The angle of the stairs ↑
From the angle of the ladder depends on its ergonomics and comfort, as well as the possibility of using one or another ratio tread depth and height of the steps.Based on centuries-old experience of the ladder construction itself is considered safe and comfortable staircase with a slope relative to the horizontal 30-40 °.
However, this requires a ladder and plenty of space.Owners are not too spacious rooms have draw drawing stairs to the second floor and, armed with school knowledge of the Pythagorean theorem, calculate the angle of the concrete staircase in a particular space.
Straight staircase with a slope of 40-50 ° is unsafe and extremely inconvenient for frequent use.You may want to choose a more comfortable combined design.
If you do not have the time or inclination to delve into the calculations and design rules ladders, ergonomic modular stairs to the second made taking into account allrequirements and regulations - your option.Ready Modular ladders, straight, curved, spiral, wood or metal, can be matched to any style of interior design and floor space, but their main advantage - simple assembly for 3-4 hours like a child's constructor.At the same time, the modules of the stairs in the assembly can be adjusted in height and width, reaching optimal size for the room.Each module can withstand the weight of the ladder team to 200 kg.
We hope that these tips will help you to choose the optimum design, design and method of execution of the most beautiful and comfortable ladder, which no doubt will be spectacular decoration of your home.