ladder - a complex architectural structure, the list of requirements for which the number of reliability, safety, aesthetics and comfort.Owners of houses we would like to serve it as long as possible and did not require endless repairs.Because, among other materials used in the manufacture of stairs, the most commonly used artificial stone - concrete.On the strength parameters on artistic expression, in operational longevity it is no rivals, and just a concrete staircase is being built with their own hands without any problems.
Why staircase made of concrete better?↑
used in the manufacture of the material excellently carries all the burdens of intensive use, the concrete stairs in private homes arrange outdoor and indoor.
They are considered the best option for the construction of the central entrance group and for movement in the basement or attic, used inlandscape design.In addition:
- monolithic construction has not become loose from the dynamic load elements;
- users do not get any negative creaking sounds, even if the finishing was made of concrete stairs tree;
- possible embodiment of any ideas of architects from elementary propulsion, more complex designs to complex screw-component configurations;
- minimal risk of fires;
- facing lots of options, compatibility and compatibility with any finishing and building materials.
construction could be entirely monolithic or one-piece can only be stringers, which are put up after setting the data elements of a skeleton of concrete stair treads with no risers.In the second case, the structure is obtained more easily, both technically and in terms of ornamental, but installing it over the seating area is not desirable because of the gaps.
There is a technical detail: the concrete stairs to the second floor, the basement, the attic, the veranda canonly be manufactured at the facility.Works are carried out in the construction process, and unlike their wooden counterparts can not be set after the completion of interior decoration.
selects the optimum design ↑
whole process of the construction of concrete stairs divided into three stages, is:
- build formwork - standard for creating any concrete and w / concrete structures work;
- assembly and mating fittings;
- directly pouring concrete stairs.
most difficult and time-consuming step recognizes formwork assembly.If you intend to build a florid configuration, without the slightest doubt it will need to instruct professionals.Formwork stairways precarious geometry without significant experience in this business can be done.
easiest way to fill odnomarshevuyu ladder, placing it between the two walls.Then do not need the side formwork elements, it is enough to draw the outline of the walls.The design of the unit odnomarshevoy stairs can be a variety of interesting rounded shape of the bottom step.
more complicated in execution will odnomarshevy option adjacent the wall of only one side, as it will be necessary to make an end formwork element and set to support it support.Much more difficult will be to fill in the design with two non-contiguous to the side wall, build a half-pace option with zabezhnymi steps or landing.Overall, however, a simple geometry, if desired, it is possible to handle and original finish concrete staircase ceramics, wood, nickel-plated, wrought-iron details will make it unique.
Making plans for future work ↑
As with any architectural and functional structure staircase requires prior design and analysis.A simple project to do at least a sketch format, the drawn by hand.
Standard sizes ↑
Those wishing to find out how to make the concrete stairs, you should know that:
- width dictated by DIN 18065 and domestic SNIP, should be 0.8-0.9 m;
- standard step height of 17 cm;
- construction height should take into account the thickness of the upper floors, including the height of the cake with the floor covering;
- step width, provides a comfortable step, 29-30 cm;
- convenient to move the angle considered 30º, but, if necessary, reduce the area of the design angle can reach 45º.
Too steep stairs will increase the likelihood of injury.Technological limit of 45º also undesirable because of the inconvenience of moving.If desired, to reduce the area in terms of better prefer making concrete stairs with two or more bays or set screw design.
important.The project should take into account the presence of fences, installation of embedded parts for it must be provided in the design.
basis for design ↑
Depending on the complexity, breadth and magnitude of the weight of flight of concrete stairs will be from 1.5 to 2.5 tons.Because before the erection of questions you need to consider the base unit, the most common form of which is w / w beams and foundations.If the base will serve as a screed on the ground, the ground underneath must be sealed, and calculate the weight of the monolithic structures are not put pressure on her with a force greater than 1 kg / cm².It should be remembered that the finishing stages of the concrete stairs, for example, natural stone will significantly increase its weight.If the load exceeds the allowable value, it is better to sheathe timber.
important.Monolithic concrete staircase is not recommended to rely on the tie with the performance foam insulation.Planning ladder will have to disassemble, then pour a special foundation.
Phased construction of concrete stairs ↑
At the initial stage of assembly formwork used:
- waterproof plywood (18-20 mm per slice) and / or Edged board (3 cm);
- lumber with a cross section up to 10 × 10 cm for the struts or supports;
- to form curved surfaces of plywood 9 mm or narrow edging board.
The formwork should not have any cracks or gaps.Connections are made using phosphated screws can be installed at the ends of the steel corners.After hardening of the concrete all formwork elements are removed without problems.
in the formwork along the march finished steel bars are stacked and connected reinforcing rebar crosslinked.Then establish wooden stoppers for the installation of a planned fence inserts.Then concrete is poured, the mark which should be no lower in strength than the B-15.Pour the need to fully march, starting from the lowest level.
How can decorate the concrete stairs?↑
To reduce the load on the foundation is often preferred lining concrete staircase tree.Wood can be made level, balustrades and handrails.Appropriate parts nickel fences, wrought iron lattice specific decoration on supporting pillars.
Concrete wonderfully blends with any material, because in terms of finishing almost no restrictions.
All elements can be completely lined with wood or tiled with risers or only partially cover the upper part.
valid various special effects, for example, the device of the original LED lighting, the use of plastic and glass.Moreover, facing the concrete stairs tree can perfectly be combined with any of the options.
course, to the manufacture of monolithic concrete structure necessary to proceed carefully prepare for work.For beginners in the field of construction, you must first figure out all the nuances of design and all well-calculated.After getting acquainted with the rules of the technological ladder and finish pouring concrete will not frighten unnecessary complexity, but require thoroughness and accuracy.Not too confident in their abilities performers can be pre-trained on the device stairs to the site.Surely this valuable experience will help them in the future.