With the need to perform electrical work, sooner or later everyone faces.The reasons may be different: Move, redevelopment area, the failure of the old wiring.The number of electricity customers is increasing every year: it is hard to imagine the house of the modern person without a computer, air conditioner, microwave oven and other household helpers, powered by the network.This inevitably leads to a change in requirements for power supply systems, their arrangement with the new standards.Many believe that the wiring in the house - a task force under perform only to professionals.Not argue with that, but if you have the desire, supported by theoretical knowledge and practical skills to carry out the work yourself is realistic.
Prepare for Wiring ↑
Preparations are madeof several stages, each of which has a decisive importance.These include marking, punching and procurement work.
Putting tools for installation ↑
most time-consuming task is considered to be breaching the grooves (cutting grooves) for the preparation of wires and holes for outlets and switches.Work much easier and electric wall chaser.Wall Chasers differs from the grinder having two diamond blades that are closed tight casing.
is also necessary to prepare the clippers with insulated handles, pliers, LED to check the power network, plaster, insulation tape, switches, sockets, lamps, installation and distribution boxes, cables.Channels may be needed for the wiring cable.
Calculation wiring ↑
Design works - an important point in deciding how to carry out the wiring in the house.
When elections are held should take into account its cross-section and a minimum capacity of all electrical appliances.In the room where it will be used in high-power electronics, the section should be more.
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electrical power available in your passport.For kitchen appliances should provide a separate cable.
should be noted that copper conductors can withstand much greater load than their aluminum counterparts.Most often used a two- or three-conductor wire such as APV, GDP APPVS cross-sectional area of 4.5 mm2.Three-core cable is used when connecting chandeliers with two modes of operation.
calculating the length of the wire, do not forget about the number of mounting points (switches, sockets, junction boxes).For each point, it needs at least 10 cm of the wire.By counting the number of connecting ducts, remember that this figure depends on the number of sockets and switches.
how to mark territory ↑
One of the most important points of the electrical work is charting, which is a drawing of your house, indicating the location of points of sockets, switches, lighting fixtures.
first step is to pave the way for the main wire bundle.The horizontal sections are laid at a distance of 20 cm from the ceiling, the rotation angle should be 90 degrees.The layout of the conductor attachment can be carried out with extreme points.
improve the efficiency of a cord, painted methylene blue or charcoal.One end of the anchoring and the other by pulling on the marking field, throw down a sharp movement of the hand.On straight track left by a cord to mark the site of attachment of wires to the ceiling and walls will not be difficult.
Locations descent to switches and sockets mounted junction boxes.Hidden wiring in the home involves the use of similar sockets and switches, mounted in installation boxes with a diameter of 70 mm.
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switch placed by the door handle, but so that the door does not hit him.The distance from the floor - 50-80, or 150 cm. The height of the floor when installing sockets is not regulated.
The kitchen is better to install a triple socket, not forgetting the taps to connect the air and additional lighting in the sink area.In the living room for every 4 meters to be 1 socket.Do not set the outlet near the gas / electric stove, sink, water pipes.
Particularly noteworthy places with high humidity levels.Do not install the sockets and switches in the zone of the crane and in the area of the bath (shower, sink).It may be installed sockets, RCD protected, in the space of a radius of 2.4 meters from the basin.
little about the wires, RCD and machines ↑
device (RCD) is used for protection against currents in the event of a leak.In the bathroom, it is advisable to use a RCD class to 30mA for sockets - Machine type B to 25A current and the RCD of 30 mA.For the line of lighting would be enough for the machine to 10A Type B
As for the wire, as already mentioned, it is better to acquire copper samples.Accepted provide three ways to connect: spike, twist and through terminals.Stranding because of insecurity today is not widely applied.Alternatively, use bandage twisted when the cables are held together by copper wire smaller cross-section.The best option in the home - the use of the terminal, which securely hold the cable.
kinds of household electrical ↑
Installation can be done in several ways: latent, open and combined.
hidden wiring runs above the suspended ceiling, in the voids of building structures, rendered monolithic pipes inside the walls.The horizontal sections are laid in a layer of the floor, made of fireproof materials.
If you chose the partitions, you must use wire-protected mechanical shell, which are laid on the floor slabs at a distance of 200 mm.Mounting must provide a snug fit to the maximum basis of Grooves.The distance between the mounting points - 0.5-1.2 m.
For wiring under a suspended ceiling made of materials of flammability class G1, necessary cables with index NC (flame retardant).Materials Class G2, G3, G4 involve the use of wires in metal.If the wiring is carried out in the sauna or bathroom, then experts advise to use only the cables sheathed in PVC.
open wiring is done on the walls, baseboards in cable, plastic channels.It is important not to mix low-voltage, lighting, and power cables.Channels and skirting boards should have insulating properties.
How to do the wiring in the house?↑
consider the main stages of the electrical work.
mounting sockets and switches ↑
sockets and switches are hidden and open.To install the open sockets and switches needed Enclosures made of non-conductive materials (Plexiglas, wood, Micarta, etc.).
they attach themselves with screws or adhesive NEC-2/60, BMP-5.Outlets are secured with two screws to Enclosures, switches are installed in the open phase of the cable that secures the replacement cartridges and tubes.
Hidden sockets and switches are mounted in plastic or metal box type KP-1,2, U-196.
Boxes junction, connectors, mounting ↑
When buying read the certificates of conformity.Boxes should be made of fireproof materials.Connecting cables carried out by welding, crimping or clamping.
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Places cable entry into the mounting boxes protect the sleeves of non-combustible materials or pieces of PVC pipe.
In rooms with low humidity can be placed in the voids of the wire floors and wall niches.Wall sockets must be free of roughness, cover - from non-combustible materials.
Installation switchboard ↑
Switchboard - an essential component of the power supply of any room.When wiring is necessary to consider not only its location, but also to choose security system, to determine the number of lines.
Thinking dislocation switchboard, consider only the interior and aesthetic features is not enough, you need to comply with regulations.The main requirement - the availability, ieOrganization quick access when needed.The shield must be fixed at a height convenient for visual inspection (1.5 meters).
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switchboard should not be placed in the boiler, as well as humid and dusty places.Dry, clean room increases the life of the device several times.
important nuance - connecting ↑
conduct electricity - half the battle, the main thing - to connect the internal wiring to the external grid.Here, many problems arise becauseThese activities are mainly carried out the organization with the approval documents.
This means that you have to worry about the presence of some of the securities - the act of hidden work on the device ground (if the house is new), to assure the wiring diagram, or to obtain permission for the replacement of a network element, such as counter.
in a newly built country house is much easier - the connection to the network is "their" electrician, all registration points are carried out under the simplified scheme.
Video: do the wiring yourself ↑
That's all.When the process is complete, you should cover up potholes and holes formed in the course of work, connect the wires together and connect the wiring to the distribution box.