replacement or laying new wiring in an apartment or private house - the problem is very, very time-consuming.Since I decided to make the modernization of the electrical network, have to deal with such works as cabling.Depending on where the wiring, the operating conditions of premises and individual preferences it is necessary to make a variety of ways.What are the ways of gasket is described in this article.
wiring in the corrugated pipe ↑
To run a cable over the floor, wall or ceiling using the corrugation.This wiring can be both hidden and open.
Gofra a corrugated pipe made from PVC or metal.Inside lies a metal wire, which can be used to stretch a cable inside the pipe.In recent years, increasingly used corrugated PVC for electrical cables and wires
corrugated pipes can be used in residential, industrial, office and industrial premises.Material corrugations is an additional cable insulator and has the ability to self-extinguishing, significantly reduces the possibility of spontaneous combustion due to a short circuit.
corrugation suitable for different types of cables with different diameters have been produced in several variations to the cross-section: 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm, 50 mm and 63 mm.Through it can be pulled as power cables and electrical and related information networks.
Important!Corrugated polyvinyl chloride can be used only for the cable indoors.The material from which it is made, is sensitive to ultraviolet solar radiation, temperature and humidity.Although for laying in open spaces there is a separate class of corrugations.
the cabling work in the corrugation is more convenient to make two of us.First we need to pull out a piece of wire from the pipe.Then make a hole in the winding of the cable, and thread the wire into it, carefully twist.Corrugated pipes, it is desirable to level, one person should hold the distal end of the corrugations and the second stretching cables, pulling out of corrugated steel wire.When the cable is fully stretched, connect it tightly ribbed tape to the construction did not move.
to the wall corrugation conveniently secured with clips - clamps, whose diameter can be matched to the section of the pipe.This method is often used for laying the cable in suspended ceilings and plasterboard partitions.If the corrugation laid on the floor under the concrete floor, you need to buy a special - reinforced, capable of supporting the load.
Cabling in the trench ↑
in suburban areas and in suburban homes stretching the power cable between buildings and exterior lighting can be air and underground mining.Air method is appropriate if the distance between objects is small.Method is suitable for underground cabling over long distances or equipment outdoor lighting.This method is more aesthetic, as there is no garlands hanging over his head, but has some limitations:
- Cabling in the trench is not allowed if the groundwater level is high.For example, in a swampy area it can reach 1 m and above.
- The soil contains a large number of substances that can damage or break the cable sheath.
- Stray currents in the soil negatively affect the electrical wiring.
- structure of the soil is too mobile.
- In areas where too often will be dug up soil and undesirable to lay cable.
If no contraindications on the site have been identified, you can start laying the cable.To begin to make the layout of the site.The cable must be located no closer than 1 m from the tree, to bypass the parking lots, playgrounds for arrival assenizatorskaya machines and other places of high load on the ground.
Further procedure for laying the cable in a trench looks like:
1. digs a trench on the previously performed markup.The minimum allowable depth is 0.7 m. However, for greater convenience is better to make 0.8 - 0.9 m.
2. From the trenches remove all kinds of materials and substances that may damage the cable jacket: glass, stone, iron, wire,et al.
3. At the bottom pour a layer of sand 10 cm.
4. We buy cable:
- For small capacity and cross-sections - cable VVG;
- For medium and high power - AVBbShv cable, galvanized steel tapes armor and flame retardant.
- For medium and high power - cable VBbShv - armored copper cable (more expensive).
5. Check and make sure the insulation of conductors with each other and with the armor with a megohmmeter.
Important!You should always remove the charge from the cable after a megger test.For this interconnected wires and armor and closes all on the ground.At the same time we observe the precautions stand on a rubber mat, rubber boots and gloves and in the presence of a partner.
6. Protect cable.You can use different materials: corrugated plastic pipe, corrugated metal or metal double-walled pipe.The choice depends on the budget and preference.Stretching the cable through the protective material.If you decide to use corrugated polyvinyl chloride further protect Enclosures place of contact with large solid objects, and others, can damage the cable.The case can be made of asbestos-cement pipes, sawn in half and put on its two halves.
7. Puts cable to the bottom of the trench.Doing this is not tautly and undulating to lay the cable loosely.
Important!It is desirable to draw the plan - the layout of cables in the area to not further damage it.
8. filled with sand - 10 cm.
9. On top of the ground - 15 cm. Lightly compacted.
10. Route the signal over the cable tape.
11. completely covered with soil, making a small mound.Once again, we check for shorts.If everything is OK, you can use it.
when needed pipes ↑
pipes when installing wiring used in rooms with high humidity and significant temperature differentials.For example, in the bath, basement, unheated buildings.It is also an indication for the use of steel pipes can serve as a high fire risk areas.For example, if the house is completely made of wood.
addition to residential cabling such method is used in industrial buildings, production halls and other buildings where there are high mechanical loads, corrosive chemicals, vapors and gases, as well as the high possibility of dust and hazardous substances on the wiring.
For cable outdoors use plastic, asbestos cement, steel and other pipe to protect the wiring from aggressive soils, stray currents and mechanical damage.
In accommodation, laying cable in the pipe is produced as a hidden and open way.If you plan on laying in Stroebe, the pipe is mounted directly in Stroebe in the wall or floor, and then render over.When laying the way open tube attached to the wall using brackets or clamps.
Important!The vertical pipes laid broach the cable needs to be done from the bottom up.
to connect pipes to each other can be used welding sleeves and cuffs without sealing, if the room is dry.And you can take advantage of threaded couplings.In turning areas is desirable to use a knee on the thread.At the same time in order not to damage the cable when broaching the sharp edge of the pipe, in places laid plastic sleeve.
Important!To the condensate does not accumulate on the surface of the pipe, and rolled with them, the pipes are mounted with a slight slope.
Laying cable trays ↑
This method of installation of the power cable used in electrical rooms, technical floors of buildings, basements, pump, compressor, in the aisles of the shieldsand other technical areas.
power cables in trays open type has a number of advantages with respect to the laying of the pipes:
- trays are much cheaper.
- always possible to check whether your cable as tray cover is easily removed.You can replace a portion or add another cable.
- cable is not pulled and laid mechanically, which helps prevent unwanted abrasion sheath.
Grips trays at a height of not less than 2 m above the floor.Mounted on brackets and pendants.Connections are made with threads.
Practicality cable channels ↑
There are situations where fine finish premises has already been done, and suddenly there was a need to make the wiring cable through the apartment.Or, for example, the house is completely made of wood, as a lay cable in such a case?A good solution is to seal the cable into the cable - channel.The second of its name - the electrical box.This method is considered to be open.Most often
cable - channel is produced in white color, but if you ask for, you can find a variety of shades under the wood.Thus, the box will have virtually no visually stand out on a wooden wall.The material used: plastic, steel or aluminum.
Cable installation is reduced to such works:
- Remove the lid from the box.Attach it to the wall on dowels.If the wall is too rough, it will not be easy to do.
- lay cables.In the box he is no fixed.
Important!Cable - channel segments laid by 2 m. If the total length of the line is large, temporary fixing of the cable at intervals you can install temporary fasteners in the form of pieces of cover.
- After all the cable laid, remove the time and put the lid on the stationary box.
Similarly, the cabling is made in the plinth with the cable - channel.Through it is possible to stretch the wire telephony, Internet, computer and antenna cable.
Cabling in the sewers ↑
cable duct consists of manholes, pipes and devices for installation.For laying cable in the existing sewer or to create a new special organization hired, and obtained the necessary permits.
Such a method is considered to be the safest in the city.It ensures that the cable will not be damaged land and work will be protected from negative external influences.It is necessary to use a special cable for underground installation.
video guide home electricians ↑
Each of the methods described above cabling is well on its stage of packing in determining the starting conditions.Remember, before you choose one or another method and start the cable laying, is to consult with a specialist.He may recommend a specific type of cable that fits in your situation, or will offer a completely different method of laying.