Today it is hard to imagine a comfortable life without electricity, but a sudden power failure in the apartment or house is becoming a big problem.To avoid this trouble, it is necessary at the stage of buying an apartment or house to pay close attention to the wiring.And in case of unsatisfactory results of the inspection do the work on its installation.All works can meet experienced professionals, but those who are used to doing everything he can perform wiring by hand.The main thing is to know the rules and requirements for the installation of electrical wiring and have an idea what to do.
Rules wiring ↑
Through the work of laying the wires, you must strictly comply with all requirementsthe installation of electrical wiring.Failure or half-measures in this kind of work can have very dire consequences.Here is a list of basic rules that must be followed:
- counters, branching boxes,
- breakers must be installed at a height of 65 - 80 cm or 1.5 m above the floor.In the first case, this is for convenience of children, in the second - for adults.Also switches must be in all areas near the doorway, in a place where the door does not close access to them;
- outlet should be positioned 0.5 - 0.8 m above the floor.You should not place them near the plinth in order to avoid a short circuit, if the room is flooded with water.The distance from the wall to the gas or electric stoves, radiators, pipes, or other grounded objects must be at least 50 cm. In the calculation of the number of outlets should assume that 6 m2 premises set 1 socket.The number of outlets for the kitchen is calculated based on the planned number of household appliances.The toilet installation of sockets is prohibited, and for the outlets in the bathroom, you must install a transformer outside of the bathroom.
- Wiring is carried out on the walls vertically and horizontally, and their location to display on the premises wiring plan;
- for horizontal laying is necessary to keep a distance of 50 - 100 mm from the eaves and beams and 150 mm from the ceiling.The height of the plinth should be 150 - 200 mm.When the vertical distance to the laying of doorways or windows should be at least 100 mm;
- wiring must not touch the metal constructions.Distance from the gas pipes should be at least 400 mm;
- wiring harness and the connection it is necessary to perform in special boxes and bare ends must be carefully insulated.It should be remembered that a compound of copper and aluminum wire between them is prohibited;
- wire to ground zero and protective conductors must be attached to devices by bolting.
Prevenient installation preparation ↑
Like any other domestic work, wiring should start with a preparatory phase.And the first thing that is required to successfully complete the work - is the circuit wiring.To do this, you can contact the experts, and for a fee they draw a diagram of the wiring harness in the room or do everything yourself.This can be done on paper, draw a floor plan and place it on display wiring, installation location receptacles, distribution boxes, panel and note the place of installation of lighting fixtures.
creating a simple plan, you can immediately calculate the required number of cables or wires, outlets, switches, and other things.
To be precise, for wiring will need the following materials: panel illumination, differential automatic or RCD, wires, Enclosures, distribution boxes, switches, sockets, corrugated, duct or cable - TV, terminals for wire connections and Siza, electrical tape anddifferent fastening elements (clips, anchors - nails, screws).
Important!When calculating the amount of cable you need to remember two things.First, do not forget to include in the total length of all the branches on the walls to the sockets, switches and light points.Second, to get the length to add extra couple of meters as necessary to do the release wires 10 - 15 cm at the points of installation sockets, switches and lighting.On top of that is a small reassurance in case of an error during installation.
Particular attention should be paid to the wire.When you select a preference for copper wire core.Copper is more durable, better conductor of electricity, flexible.Among the variety would be required for the installation of the following types of wires:
- VVG-5 * 6.This five-wire conductors and cross-section 6 mm2 is perfect for those who installed a three-phase power.
- VVG-2 * 6.This two-wire cable has a cross-section of 6 mm2.They are connecting the shield V.R.U.to shield light.
- VVG-3 * 2.5.This three-conductor wire of 2.5 mm2.It is used for the main part of the panel wiring to and from raspredkorobok raspredkorobok to outlets.
- VVG-3 * 1.5.This three-core conductor with 1.5 mm2 is used for installation of the junction box to the point of illumination and circuit breakers.
What sways machines, here you can opt for the 16 A and 20 A machine.First - 16 A - perfect for lighting, and the second - 20 A - for sockets.There are 25 automatic A, but for the old houses and old wiring set is not recommended, since the increased load, it may not work, and the wiring can not stand it.
Important!For each section of the wire has its own allowable load.In our case, for wire 3 * 1.5 VVG suitable machines for 16 A and 20 A for wire VVG-3 * 2.5 should install automatic 20 A and 25 A.
Now you need to decide on the method of installation, it can berecessed or surface mounting.If you apply for concealed installation, then you have to pick up a hammer or grinder, and done very dusty work on shtroblenie walls.An open installation is much simpler: the wire is fixed to the wall with special clips, anchors - nails, boxes or cable - channels.Of course, this is not always aesthetically pleasing, but with this method of installation is always possible to get access to wiring.Before carrying out work on the installation in the premises is necessary to remove all the extra to get free access to the walls, floors and ceiling.Wiring flush is best done before any finishing work and surface mounting can be done at the end of work.
to pave Grooves must first be applied to the surface of walls, ceiling and concrete floor layout according to the previously established plan of wiring.Then, with the help of punch grinders to cut a groove or - Stroebe.Installation locations Enclosures and raspredkorobok cut with a special attachment to punch - crowns.For pulling wires between rooms are drilling holes in the walls with a diameter of 2 - 3 mm larger than the diameter of the wire.
For those who do not have the right skills for installation, it is best to contact the experts.Today, prices for wiring are high and depend on the number of rooms, types of jobs and the number of points of installation of lighting fixtures, outlets and switches.All work can cost from 300 USD to 700 USDBut you can do everything by yourself, follow the recommendations below.
Installation hidden power ↑
The first thing to do is to install and connect the shield of illumination, the RCD or dif machines.These simple tools will save you from a short-circuit and spikes.Typically, such a shield is installed at the entrance to an apartment in a special niche, but it can also be hung on the wall.To connect, you must first determine its location.If it is mounted, then you need to drill holes for fixing it if the planned special niche, then simply put there all the necessary devices and secure them.The new houses are usually made a niche, and it held the wire VVG-2 * 6 or VVG-5 * 6.For older homes will have to make the connection on their own, pre-drilled hole in the wall and stretched it wire.
now connect previously purchased machines.Set them in the box and fix them, and then connect the wires.Standard shield as follows:
- top terminals are zero,
- below ground,
- middle mounted machines.
First we clean the induction wire and attach the blue wire to zero, yellow with green stripe to ground, and the white wire to the top terminal on the machine and there put the jumper to the upper contact of the adjacent machine.Wires VVG-3 * 2.5, which go in the room, connect as follows: phase (color can be brown, red or other storage) are connected to the bottom terminal of the machine.Zero and attachable ground as well as in the lead-in wire.
Important!For the wiring that goes into the room, the jumper to do.As for the sockets, switches and light points will have their own machines, which are powered by a common cable.Where the panel is mounted to the RCD, the introductory phase and zero wires are connected to the RCD and from there go to the machine and a zero terminal.
now ready for installation flush.It should be noted immediately that the hidden way of installation is cutting grooves for laying wires in cavities of ceilings, under the floor, plaster and wiring under the drywall.Laying wiring for Grooves carried out as follows:
- The previously made Grooves laid wires, so that they do not protrude over the edge.If necessary, slightly expand Stroebe.
- From SHCHO raspredkorobok to run wire VVG-3 * 2.5.
- The same cables are led by raspredkorobok to outlets.
- points for lighting and paving breakers VVG-wire 3 * 1.5 raspredkorobok to the place of connection.
If you plan to sheathe the walls are drywall, then you can not do Grooves.
All wiring will be laid for the plasterboard sheets.The principle of placing the same, but more importantly, there are significant differences - all wires are in the corrugation and then laid in place for wall mounting using special clips.
For those who want to save a little, it is possible to use the wiring in the floor.So it does not have to bend around corners and walls, but simply to reach the wires directly to the right room.In this embodiment, it is worth noting the need for vertical shtrobleniya wall sockets, switches and lighting.Also, all wiring plant in the corrugation.
Important!If you have planned for each group of devices or a room on one or more machines, then in the wiring label should be a certain way, otherwise you may get confused.
Now that the main wires are laid, they need to have a junction box and connect to a single network.To do this, we clean the wire ends and twist together.All the bare ends must be insulated.You can use duct tape or use SiZom that much easier and more efficient.
insulated wire ends firmly pressed into the box, and the box lid.Mounted wiring tester check for damage or improper connections.At the final stage close up Grooves wiring alabaster.It remains to replace the sockets, switches, lighting devices, then you can apply to the utilities.For connection to the power board will need to call an electrician to turn off the electricity and he hooked up to the counter.
mounting open wiring ↑
This installation method is used if in the house, apartment or other premises can not be or can not be done for concealed installation.To implement open wiring using special box or cable - TV.All of these materials are purchased based on the total square footage wiring, since all cables and wires are hidden and stacked in boxes.Installation and connection SCHO carried out just as described above.The process of installation is as follows:
- according to the plan outline the wiring place wiring;
- zasverlivaem holes for dowels and screws in steps of 0.5 m;
- put in place a box or a cable - TV and fasten them to the wall with screws;
- in the place of installation of sockets, switches, lighting zasverlivaem holes;
- install sockets and switches, fixing them with screws.For the lighting on the ceiling using special hooks on the walls - a special fasteners;
- similar concealed installation in the joints of the wires raspredkoroba use, and for wiring - Siza;
- tester check for damage or errors, and close the box with wiring covers;
- to connect to the electricity grid call an electrician in housing.
video guide for beginners electricians
to host intelligent wiring own hands is not much difficulty.The main thing is to perform all gradually and carefully.The slightest mistake can be very expensive, but if you try, you can save quite a good amount of money on the installation wiring.