If your site was not very smooth, do not worry.Slopes can always be done with the help of suitable terraces - broad lines lost in the form of steps.But remember that the vertical side they will need to protect the soil from falling.In this article you will learn how to make safe and beautiful retaining wall with his hands.It has built with a view to distinguishing the territory and highlight certain areas.You can use it to disguise errors relief or emphasize its dignity.Landscape designers are using this artistic decorative element for a long time, and every year it gets more and more popular!
walls These structures are divided into functions that they perform.Basically, there are two:
The first deals with decorating the site.Such walls do where the
What material is better to choose ↑
Depending on the purpose and design of landscape design, they are built from such materials:
- natural stones;
- concrete and rubble concrete;
- brick and concrete;
- wooden elements;
Let us examine each of them separately.
- retaining wall of stone has a lot of fans.Why is that?The cause of visual appeal and beauty of the natural material.The most enduring of these is a granite, basalt, and then Siena.A good option is a limestone and sandstone.These disadvantages are porous structure due to which the material is stratified with time under the influence of moisture.Gradually this wall starts to grow moss.However, not all owners consider it a disadvantage - many are quite satisfied with such a natural view of the building.
- If you selected retaining wall of concrete more than 30 cm in height, it is possible to build only after the construction of the foundation.Such a design can have different depth and width.These will be determined depending on the characteristics of which has the composition of the earth, and the shape of the stenki.V case where the altitude does not exceed 30 cm, design can be made without foundation.The main thing is that it is recessed into the ground and rested on a carefully prepared base of gravel and sand.So you prevent unwanted heave during freezing temperatures.
- In terms of the construction of a retaining wall made of brick is the simplest.It is easy to build using a very different type of masonry.Here it is important to calculate the height and thickness of the structure.For example, if it has a height of 60 cm, will need to be strengthened by means of pilasters.
- important to know that not every material can be versatile and suitable for any climate.So retaining walls made of wood is not desirable to build in the regions other than prolonged cold and wet period.The fact that the tree is destroyed under the influence of moisture, so it needs to be further protected.To do this, be sure to impregnated wooden elements, using special tools.They can also be pre-burn, and then coat with bitumen.
- interesting option are the retaining walls of gabions.Such structures are made of special containers made of solid metal mesh.Its pre-filled with boulders and pebbles.The walls of this kind are attractive element in landscaping and have excellent functional characteristics.Their peculiarity is safe with respect to the environment.
Calculation retaining wall ↑
Before erect strengthen or decorative construction of this type, you need to make a preliminary assessment.Only then will you be able to count on its durability.Primarily, it is necessary to take into account the forces that will act on it.It is about:
- own weight construction;
- are her burdens;
- pressure of the soil, fill to the wall;
- force of friction and adhesion to the ground.
Do not forget that the construction could be affected by adverse conditions:
- wind (especially important when the height of the wall more than 2m);
- seismic action;
- vibration (being near the railroad or busy roads);
- swelling of land in the frosty time of the year;
- storm and flood waters.
device retaining walls should be started after the calculation of the load on the main components of the design - the foundation of the body.Pay special attention to sewerage and drainage.
How confers resistance walls ↑
This is one of the most important moments in the design.To design with the time did not move and did not overturned, it should heed the following advice:
- erect back of the wall should be a bias toward future backfill;
- to the rear wall of a well-mated with the ground, it is roughened;
how to make a retaining wall to prevent erosion of the foundation?Do not forget the drainage;
- front side walls complement the console - a special projection, which aims - to reduce the possibility of tipping retaining structures;
- weight of the soil and the pressure can be reduced by placing a light in hollow items.
procedure for construction works ↑
- Dig a trench width and depth of which depends on the height and material of the wall.At the bottom poured rubble.
- tamped stones and covered with sand (10 cm), leveling rake it with a bias toward the slope.
- along the trench pull a cord to fix the structure.It is made, keeping the indentation on the slope to create a space that will be filled with soil.
Retaining walls, photos that prove it can have a different level of irregular shape.Projections - this is the perfect place to put flowers.You can decorate the building and in another way, by creating her rock garden, a small stream or pond.Beautifully decorated and reliably made retaining wall - a guarantee of safety and attractiveness of your site!Suppose you will succeed!