For rich harvest does not necessarily have a fertile land.Almost all crops can be grown in a city apartment, avoiding dirt and peculiar smell of the soil.After fertilizer is a special solution.Even the experts do not have to bring if hydroponics own hands will be done according to the rules.
concept of hydroponics ↑
It is a system that enables plants to grow without soil.All nutrients are obtained from the solution.For each crop and stage of development required different concentrations.
Hydroponics allows a small area to get a rich harvest of environmentally friendly products.At the same t
At home hydroponics can be grown virtually all cultures.In our country, the most common way for tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, strawberries, peppers, mint.Hydroponics is great for indoor plants.The exceptions are plants with root systems that can be easily rot.
Necessary components ↑
From air and water plants take in oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, and of the components of the solution - the set of micro-and macro, accelerating growth, stimulatingdevelopment of the root system, improves flowering and the color intensity.
The first group includes iron, copper, zinc, boron, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum.The second - potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.
growing vegetables hydroponically possible without the substrate, using only the solution and air, and with the use of crushed granite, expanded clay, gravel, ash, pumice, coarse sand, rock wool, foam.
Depending on the method of supplying fluid to the root system for hydroponic flowers, vegetables and berries is:
- active - use pumps, pumps, ultrasound and other devices;
- passive - fluid moves by capillary water.
important !The roots of the air should be more, but can not prevent them from drying out.
In addition, there are various systems that can be used separately or combined with each other.
Substrate Culture ↑
This is a simple passive hydroponic setup.The plant is located in the vessel with the substrate, which has access openings solution.The depth of immersion in liquid is 1-2 cm.
important !Constant level control solution to dryness roots.Large plants "drink" liquid faster than it can rise.
periodic flooding culture substrate ↑
scheme similar to the previous.Only the vessel has a double bottom and the composition is filled periodically.
hydroponic equipment for this system include:
- pump (optional timer) placed in the lower compartment capacity;
- outlet pipe derived in the upper reservoir;
- inlet tube to drain the excess fluid back into the lower compartment.
roots of the plants are in the air.Only a small amount of liquid is on the bottom to maintain the humidity of the substrate.Then
several times a day (usually 2 to 8), depending on the climate, type of substrate and the grown culture, the timer includes a pump for 10-15 minutes.The filler is flooded with a solution to the upper level of containment tube.
After turning off the liquid is drained back into the lower compartment.Air is updated, the roots become saturated with oxygen.
important !This method is simple and reliable.But it should not be used in areas where electricity is cut off for a long time, because for the functioning of a timer.The roots can dry out.
system is suitable for hydroponics and without substrate.
Drip irrigation culture substrate ↑
hydroponic fertilizer supply through adjustable dropper.Liquid flows continuously or periodically, hits the surface of the substrate under the base of the stem.There are two methods:
- When reversing the excess solution, which did not have time to absorb the plant drains back into the tank and re-used.
- When Irreversible prepared composition used once.This allows you to accurately observe the proportions are micro and macro and avoid changing the pH level.
system is easy to produce from ordinary medicine dropper.
system aquaculture ↑
The capacity is not sinking the pallet to which the plants are fixed clips (if necessary).The roots are constantly in a special liquid.With the assimilation of nutrients necessary to change the culture solution and saturate it with oxygen (aerate).With the necessary functions copes normal aquarium compressor.
system perfectly suited for water-demanding crops (eg, lettuce).But for vegetables is better to use another method.
Technique nutrient layer ↑
system equipment necessary for the general capacity of small height.The solution is fed continuously circulating brook depth of 1-2 cm. It turns out that moving the liquid covers a large area.Nutrients are mixed with air.The solution is saturated with oxygen without the compressor and feeds the roots.
Arrange better vessel at a slight incline.
Air Culture (aeroponics) ↑
roots are in the airspace periodically exposed to spraying to prevent them from drying out.
Nutrient composition is sprayed as an aerosol.At home, the system can be made using the parts for the ultrasonic humidifier.
Advantages and disadvantages of hydroponics ↑
cultures grown using hydroponics, do not differ from soil colleagues.Just use a different way of presenting the elements needed for their growth.In taste and aromatic qualities they are also identical, if the solution for hydroponics is prepared correctly.
even greater popularity of the system gives an impressive list of benefits.
- cultures grow strong and healthy in a few times faster than in the soil, better fruit.
- All nutrients are absorbed in full, and not go into the earth.
- Fruits do not accumulate nitrates, radionuclides, heavy metals and other harmful elements that are in the soil.
- is no need for watering plants.It is much easier to control the water flow.
- Do not apply pesticides to avoid destruction by pests and fungi.
- eliminate the problems associated with the removal of weeds, loosening and fertilizing.The solution itself is the fertilizer.
- cultures do not suffer from lack of oxygen, which occurs when grown in soil.They do not dry out and do not pereuvlazhnyat.
- The apartment is free from dirt and the smell of the earth, as when using soil.
- To get a good harvest requires a relatively small area.
- does not injure the roots of perennial plants when transplanting them into the ground.
- ultimately costs lower than in growing crops in soil.
there are some disadvantages, but their disadvantages are hardly.
- Initially, it is necessary to invest more than the purchase of the soil and other necessary materials.
- Before you grow hydroponics have to study theoretical questions and install the equipment.We'll have to spend more time than the usual method.
independent production Hydroponic ↑
owner who knows how to handle a hammer, a screwdriver and a drill, effortlessly able to learn the simple rules of installation.
must purchase an air compressor aquarium, a plastic container and a piece of foam.At the roots of the plants should not be exposed to light, so the vessel walls can be painted or foil wrap.
cut holes in the foam to contain the pots (as an option, can be used cups from dairy products or cut plastic bottles).It is necessary to provide for such a distance that when sprouting plants then do not interfere with each other.The glasses make holes.
can accommodate each plant separately.The preferred use gidropoty - pots for hydroponics.But even independent production will bring only pleasant chores.
It must have indoor and outdoor pots.The first hole is made for admission of the liquid to the roots.Sales have pots, visually resembles a miniature version of the wastebasket.Outdoor water and should be opaque.The distance between the bottoms - no less than 6 cm. The inner pot should be covered with water to a quarter.As an indicator of the level of liquid may be a glass tube.
Then fill the tank should be planted in the substrate and their plant.
important !Filling necessarily sift, disinfect with a solution of potassium permanganate.Then rinse with clear water.The measure is necessary for the destruction of pathogens.
solution for hydroponics is purchased at a specialty store.The label or package insert detailed rules for the use and the necessary concentration for any crop.
additional coverage is optional, if it is located on the windowsill hydroponics.The shaded areas must be set lamps of different power, depending on the plant species, varieties and stages of development.
right to transfer the plant from the soil in hydroponics ↑
procedure is carried out in the spring, summer or early fall only to young crops.Roots for 2 hours, it is necessary to hold it in warm water, then wash from the ground, remove the rotten elements and disinfected.Put the inner pot and the substrate to fill slightly higher than when planting in soil.
outer container filled with clean water in the required quantity.It put the inner pot.A week later, the water must be replaced with a solution.When new roots (it will be noticeable through the hole of the inner pot) the level of the liquid is reduced to provide an air layer.
From the first to the fourth week of the best solution is to use half the concentration in the second month - the standard, and then increase the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by 30%.
important !Plants can not make the open space (terrace, garden), because it can disrupt the water balance and composition of the solution.
Growing crops using hydroponics is gaining popularity around the world.This is not surprising.After method allows a healthy diet with less material and labor costs.