Land without a source of water supply in our time (with boilers, washing machines and dishwashers) is hard to imagine, because the organization of irrigation and water supply of a country house is very necessary thing.It can be centralized or water pipe from the well.Also, there is a common trend and arrangement of wells in areas with centralized water supply.Why is that?Because many people believe that the "own" well water tastes better and fresher.You can build a well with your hands, without the help of hired experts;it's not very complicated, but it requires knowledge, ingenuity and skill.
Benefits own well ↑
As has been said, the water from his well tasty, but it's not the only advantage.It's kind of a safety fund, because the overall system can not guarantee the absence of failures and subsequent interruptions in water supply.In addition, the number of users increases, and not a single case when the central water supply can not cope with the increasing pressure.And if the city water in the area is not at all, and far from open water, the well is the only source of water and invaluable.
search of water ↑
Digging pits with their hands in the most attractive and suitable place to begin the search of water, that is, first of all, it is necessary to fix the presence of underground water resources, as well as to determine the depth of the aquifer.
Equally important are the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of their breed and separating from the surface of the aquifer.Under the aquifer lies breed that (a surprising fact) does not pass water, but does not give it.The main sources of groundwater are considered to precipitation and filtered water from open sources (lakes, rivers).
Groundwater There are three main types:
- perched - lies deep from the surface.She had not cleared, so the water supply can not be used.For this reason, the construction of wells, such a layer must be isolated from seeping into the Pit Mine.This type of groundwater is characterized by low volume and depends on the level of precipitation;
- groundwater - the closest to the aquifer unchanged stocks.The level of this type of groundwater in the well is installed flush with the water-bearing rock.In the natural environment are presented water springs - it's cool, crystal clear water with a pleasant taste;
- artesian water - lies at a considerable depth, and compressed two waterproof layers.When tunneling through the layer of water is poured under his pressure, often a fountain.
People's method of determining the aquifer ↑
Science Hydrogeology recognize a reliable method of determining the depth of the aquifer - the drilling of exploratory wells.But this method is relatively expensive and gardens, it is used infrequently.But exploration is necessary to carry out, especially if there are no reference points on adjoining sites.
popular and economical method - dowsing, it is a unique human ability to respond to the biofield using primitive tools - metal frames.From the amplitude of the rotation of a frame depends on the depth and water resources.The precise depth is not determined, but the optimal location of future wells will be found.Although the reliability of this technique hydrogeologists questioned.
most high-quality and time-tested method - the collection of information on actual aquifers in the county.It should be interested in the well column height, depth and speed of replenishment of water sources.
Selecting a location for the well ↑
The first thing you should pay attention - the distance from the point of consumption (home).But it is not only one factor influencing the choice of location of the well.It is necessary to analyze these moments:
- digging wells can not produce their own hands away from sources of soil pollution: the manure and compost heaps, waste water discharge area, etc .;
- if the land with a slope from wells to dig the mine should be higher than the source of contamination;
- hydrogeological nature of the terrain - in marshy ground water is not always safe to drink because of the high probability of getting into the quagmire of deposits.
minimum distance from the nearest source of contamination should be 25 m to the well, trying to dig the well shafts on the slopes of ravines, gullies and on the river bank is useless, because the water will be drained ground.
Also important is the fact that the construction of the well with your hands is highly recommended in winter / autumn.Seasonal fluctuations in the groundwater level can be 1-2 meters, and in the autumn and winter, they have the lowest mark.If you ignore these recommendations and the construction of a well, for example, in April, in the winter you can go without water.
next stage - the selection of the type of the well, mine, or tubular, and the choice of the drive to deliver - or hand pump.But before proceeding to the immediate excavation, you also get all the necessary permits.
tubular or mine?↑
The main difference between these types of wells - a way to create them.Mining shovel to dig wells, and tubular punched.Such selection depends on several factors.If the aquifer is deep dug well have to dig very long.But beyond this parameter is set to another and the number of stones between the surface and the aquifer.If a self-made instrument, then cut through solid rock would be very difficult, if more than the best option - the type of mine.
Safety - a must!↑
dug wells with their hands on a mandatory basis should be based on safety.This is a most important question, because the statistics says that accidents during such work not isolated.
basic requirements to comply with work safety:
- free area: within a radius of 2-3 meters from the well shaft;
- mine mouth guard barrier of planks, which are set on edge;
- every time before starting work necessary to verify the strength of the rope, lifting the bucket loaded with soil;
- at a depth of six meters longer need to use a tether;
- mechanical lifts must necessarily be equipped with self-locking mechanism;
- daily checks of lifting devices;
- alert the worker at the bottom of the descent of something;
- periodic inspections of air quality in the well shaft with a burning candle.If necessary, you need to ventilate the mine (an umbrella or a vacuum cleaner).
materials for digging wells ↑
usually settling pit rings height 0.8 m, 1 m in diameter, with grooves.There are rings and more, but they are used very rarely.You can make the rings well with their hands, because the materials to make them available, and work with concrete does not need a high level of professionalism.Yet the basis of the technology for the preparation of concrete need to know and strictly observe the proportion is "ingredients" used for reinforcement of the steel wire and rods, as well as pre-build formwork of two cylindrical surfaces.
also dug well can be made from a frame, but the life of this well is significantly reduced, stone and brick - a costly and inconvenient material.
If the water table is deep, it is used for the construction of a well or plastic metal pipe, but provided little depth.When using the pump in addition to the bottom of the filter must be installed.
Digging of the well, the sequence of works ↑
immediate digging wells has been one person and the rest are working on the surface: lift the selected soil and transported him to the side.
So how to dig a well with your hands?The process is as follows: digging the pit, then it keeps the first ring.The ground from under it is selected, and then as the penetration is carried out following installation of concrete ring.Likewise, the whole column is incremented shaft it slides downward as the sample of soil beneath the lower ring.
Excellent choice when workers will be three.Then the work is distributed according to this principle: the first works in a face with a crowbar and shovel.He digs the ground and turns crowbar, along the way, the stones.Stone tied with ropes and retrieved from the well.
at the mouth of the well is another employee whose task is to raise a bucket using a gate on wooden trestles.He also worked out makes the breed provided for this purpose.The third man at this time resting and waiting for shift change.The process is carried out intensively, with workers often smenivayut each other.
at a depth of three meters the air temperature in the mine pit is less than 10 degrees, the humidity is high, and the air in a well ventilated are not alone.You can correct the situation with the help of an umbrella.It must be in an open state, of course, lowered and raised from the well.The microclimate of such procedures after a bit of improving, hence the activity of the employee comes back to normal.
Capacity well going to the level of the aquifer.His approach is noticeable to reduce a few degrees the temperature of the air, and on the walls of the shaft are formed mini fontanelles.This stage is the most crucial and complex including, so it must be pre-prepared and have a rest, as a water-carrier is digging in hard labor.
After resting begins active work is necessary to rapidly remove the soil with water, because of this process depends on the debit of the well.Therefore, you must work hard and without interruption dig 3-4 meters.
Important: a good helper in this case could be a mud pump.
bottom of the well shaft is lined with gravel, which will act as a filter (15-30 cm thick).The gap between the tunnel and shaft column is filled with gravel, the last concrete ring in the ground is not deepened.
Video instruction: Installation of concrete rings ↑
for more accurate and intuitive answers to their question: How well do the hands - video on the construction of well mine will be an excellent assistant.
Protect well from contamination ↑
How well do your hands and protect it from external factors and perched pollution?Fill the joint between the rings linen cord, as well as cementing is recommended to protect the shaft from falling perched.And the outer surface of the shaft is covered with waterproofing materials (clay constructed castle).
Important: a clay castle - reliable protection against external polluting factors of spring snowmelt and rain water and other contaminants.
After filling the wells with water pump should pump it to obtain high quality and crystal clear waters.
Quicksand in well mine ↑
Spillage on quicksand are not unique.It is possible to pass only the best of circumstances - low speed and low power soil water flow.But the presence of floaters is also an undeniable plus - excellent, a constant flow of water.
important when digging wells occurs in the quicksand, then be sure to use a lock type of connection rings, that is, they must put in tight grooves.
At the bottom of a wooden shield quicksand installed hardwood.He wrapped a metal grid with a way to weave braid.These actions are well protected from siltation and sand percolation.
Use and Care ↑
Every well must meet the sanitary requirements.To limit the access of animals should build a fence around the well.As well as the well must be equipped with a cover that will protect it from insects, leaves, rainfall.
During the year, the well should be inspected using a powerful light source.If there were found foreign objects, these must be removed.
As for the water intake, it must be a regular update of water.If winter is not functioning well, it is recommended that spring water in the well to upgrade several times.Making
well with their hands ↑
Construction finishes well decorated canopy, which set a goal of wood with a metal handle.Then the collar is attached to the rope or strong cord.A bucket is used for fixing the length of chain that contributes to immersion in water buckets.
The top of the canopy can be made into a kind of house, for example, with hinged door, a gable roof.The upper ring can be decorated with facing bricks or stone.This is to get not just well, but with decorative elements.
Decorative well as the landscape decoration ↑
basic material for the production of the well are decorative wooden logs.This material is associated with cleanliness, comfort of towers of wooden housing construction in the Russian tradition.Well decorative with their hands - the perfect solution to make the site unpretentious and extraordinary kind.If an ordinary well is not needed, then why not build such a wonderful and original construction.This well acts as a decorative element, and pleasing to the eye the guests and hosts the site.It is a very attractive building with a frame, a bucket and cover, all as at present, but without the mine water.
There are cases that such decorative wells hide manholes, and often they are used as a garden decoration.Plus, in their wooden house, you can plant flowers.
clean and tasty water in the well, beautifully decorated ground part and, more importantly, work with their own hands - a wonderful combination.And, the truth, having spent so much effort to build a well, you need to take care of its decent and attractive appearance.Then he will perform not only the direct purpose, but would look nice.