power consumption required to service a huge number of devices that facilitate our lives, increases day by day.The abundance of wires, cables, plugs, switches and fuses necessary not only as a place, but also to maintain in good condition.Besides old wiring is often not withstand the new high loads, causing the need for full replacement.Not everything in this case can not do without a qualified electrician - with their own hands without the skill to make the change is not easy.Many such work seems daunting, but it's just confusing.In this article we try to give all the necessary information for you to be able to perform on their own just to be electrical work.
Competent preparation for the ↑
Ifyou are interested in how to make wiring your own
- circuitry entire wiring in the home.
- Understanding the basic principles of electrical equipment.
- Knowledge of eliminating small faults.
- information on the main types of wires and their characteristics.
- Experience with tools.
If you live in a private home, then most likely, the executive circuit wiring is in your archive documents.If you are the owner of the apartment, then you can get it in either RG or housing department, or make your own (perhaps it will be faster).Introducing significant changes to the existing plan, remember that they will have to coordinate the relevant authorities.
Replacing old wiring ↑
begin with such a complex and most time-consuming process, as the replacement of wiring by hand.
How to choose a wire ↑
To determine the required wire cross-section is necessary to calculate the total load on the network, while the inclusion of all consumers.For each kilowatt of power allocated 0.5 square millimeters
Buy better stranded copper wire, it is much more flexible its "competitors" and can withstand very high loads.In residential areas, where there is no plan to use high-power devices, such as electric cooker, enough to buy three-conductor wire VVG with a cross section of 1.5 mm to 2.5 mm, and the lighting supply voltage.For high power devices need to wire up to 4 square millimeters
overt or covert ways?↑
There are hidden and open wiring.Since the installation of open wiring is almost the same process as the installation of a hidden, except for the laying of cables in special channels, we will consider it is the latter case.
can, of course, conceal the wiring and applying the plaster on it, but much more aesthetic will hide all the wires in the channels arranged in the walls.
For this purpose, the wall is applied to the scheme of the posting, and drafted the lines (by the way, they should be located only vertically or horizontally, as well as highly undesirable intersection) cut groove viaBulgarian.Next, using the punch on its selected Grooves depth of 15-20 mm.For the sample outlet holes uses a special tool, but you can do without it.In this case:
- celebrated center outlet;
- planned around the perimeter of the drilled hole;
- land between them is knocked out using a chisel.
Posting Channel attached special plastic clamps and Enclosures are installed on plaster.
Tip: when you install Escutcheon not forget to leave the margin required to align the wall putty.
wires stacked on ready channels from the outlet to the junction box and to switch from the junction box through the lamp.Each junction box must be suitable for a single power supply.Then wires are switched.
Hidden wiring can be placed not only in the walls, it can also take place inside baseboards or in special boxes overhead.This allows the continued operation quickly detect the fault and fix it.To prevent a short circuit or open circuit need to know
Rules wiring ↑
First we clean carefully both ends to ensure a tight contact.Next, gently twist and carry propaivaem it very hot soldering iron, but with the universal flux, in order to avoid excessive overheating of the insulation, leading to its rapid deterioration.All sharp edges must be blunt contact wires so they do not have pierced the insulation.
Tip: Wires better to buy so that a core mission to meet certain color.For example: phase - the red wire, zero - blue, and grounding - green.In the future, they will be easier to attach to each other.
After wiring voltage is applied to the junction box and check its presence in the outlet with the indicator lamps and work.Now you are ready to finish the room.
Common fault ↑
not always a need to replace the electrics.Sometimes you need a simple repair line.The quality of our power grids are still poor.Therefore, even if the wiring is run by all the provisions of the regulations and standards, frequent power surges can cause it to various injuries.
Also, their appearance can be caused by connecting to a network of non-working appliances, as well as the time delay of protective devices or malfunctions.Let us examine the main fault circuits.
- sparking wires.Occurs when the opening of a circuit under load, if the wires and cables are not well connected to each other, as well as the breakdown of the insulation between two conductors.
- overload.This fault may also cause a fire, as in this case, the wire is above the current nominal value of the allowed rate, which causes them to heat.As a result, the insulation of conductors may ignite.Even if the heating is insufficient for fire insulation of this wears out faster.There is an overload, while the parallel connection to the network of a large number of consumers, raising the temperature in the room or the wrong choice of wires.In rare cases, the cause of the overload are the lightning conductor, or getting to other currents.
- Short.So is any circuit between conductors or between conductors and earth.It arises as a result of violating the integrity of the insulation as a result of her injuries, aging or high voltage.
requirements, excluding damage ↑
No short circuit or an overload or other troubles may even never happen if during that time, as the installed wiring with their hands, to observe a few simple requirements:
- Do not just twist the wireamong themselves, and be sure to connect them by welding, soldering or crimping.
- not abuse the parallel connection of electrical outlets.
- install all the necessary safety devices have fast response.
- Use only wires with a sufficient cross-section.
- Use only circuit breakers or fuses.
how to troubleshoot ↑
Subject to the rules of safety wiring repaired with their hands quite easily.So, there is no light in the house.What to do?First, you must make sure there is voltage in the electrical panel.This is determined using testernogo indicator, which must be located in the tool list the owner of the room.If it shows that the voltage is, then, the problem has arisen only in you.Otherwise, turn off the machine the first thing on the counter and turn it on again.If the reason for the lack of electricity has become a power surge, it should help.
light does not light up?So it's much more tragic.Rather, there was a break in the wiring due to mechanical damage or overload in the network.It will be difficult to find a place to break the hidden wiring or if the cord is in plastic insulation.To detect the need ohmmeter, or colloquially probe.Two of the probe of the device applied to the wire and his testimony is determined the injury.The main rule with an ohmmeter - electrical blackout.If you are still not confident in their abilities and absolutely no idea what the parties come to the probe is better to invite a professional electrician, which quickly detects the fault.
After discovering the break it needs to be carefully uncover and eliminate the problems identified, in compliance with all safety regulations.
Safety for electricians ↑
There are several rules that must be followed for any electrical work:
- electrical network, which is planned to work, necessarilyIt is de-energized.
- handles the entire instrument must be isolated.
- If the shield is in public places (for example, on the landing) need to hang a warning sign on the line.
- Before starting work, make sure there is no voltage by using special devices.
- junction boxes, grounding, protection devices, meters, and the input voltage is run by a qualified electrician.
When working with electricity, remember that neglect of safety and the requirements of the EMP can not only lead to the rapid failure of the circuit, but also, more terrible, to considerable damage of the human body, and even death.
Wiring the hands - Video ↑
order for the whole process more understandable, we will post the video here, detail showing each stage of work.