saving lamps on the market linear and compact fluorescent lamps (low-pressure discharge), which contain mercury, and LED, is eco-friendly devices.A common, unifying their characteristic is that these fixtures can significantly save energy, thus have a much greater light output compared to usual incandescent lamps.Last in the coming years will cease to exist, as the world's governments set a course for widespread use of energy-saving technologies.People have to make a choice between the devices of the future generation.But what kind of energy-saving lamps are better than they are different, and what you should look for when buying?All questions and many more will respond further.
Linear and compact devices ↑
Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) has a curved shape of the bulb, allows to place it in small luminaires smaller.Typically, they are used in a domestic environment, and replaced conventional incandescent lamps.It is also used in specific types of lighting fixtures.This lamp contains inert gases (still as argon, neon), and mercury vapor from inside its housing covers the phosphor layer.When exposed to high voltage electrons begin to move it.The result of the collision of electrons with atoms of mercury becomes invisible ultraviolet radiation that is transformed into visible light (thanks to the phosphor layer).
CFL consists of three parts:
- cap with which it is connected to the network;
- ballasts, ieelectronic ballast.That it includes ignition and further supports burning lamp.As he puts voltage of 220 V at which it is necessary to work in the CFL "flicker-free" mode.
These components may vary, which causes a variety of instrument.
linear fluorescent lamps can be circular, straight or U-shaped.2 htsokolnaya straight fluorescent lamp looks like a glass tube.At its ends welded special glass legs on which the electrodes are reinforced.On the inner surface of a tube covered with a thin layer of powder - phosphor.It is filled with an inert gas, a metered amount of mercury and hermetically sealed.
Such lamps vary in diameter and length of the tube, as well as the width of the cap.The larger tube, the greater the power consumption.Usually used in offices and factories.
most widely used CFLs.Linear analogues are their "progenitors" and gradually receding into the past.On modern devices continue to talk in more detail.
Types of CFLs ↑
CFL domestic market is formed mainly by imports.Distributed products brands such as General Electric, Philips, UNIEL, OSRAM, Navigator, Ecola, Compak.They are classified according to the characteristics of their components:
1. On the cap, which can be:
- 2D - for decorative lighting and lighting for tight shower, G23 - for showers, bathroomsand wall lights, 2G7, G24Q1, G24Q2, G24Q3 - used in industrial and household devices,null, G53 - it is used as energy-saving bulbs for spotlights;
- E27 - a conventional chuck (the most common);
- E14 - used by small holder;
- E40 - a major patron.
lamp socket E27, E14 - the cartridges are installed in ordinary light bulbs because they are the easiest when installed in conventional lamps.Figures 27, 14 and 40 correspond to the diameter of the thread in the standard units.They claimed lifespan can range from 3 thousand to 15 thousand hours.Lamps for these cartridges are available with a diffuser and an open tube.
2. The color of the radiation, which is:
- warm white;
- cool-white color;
- neutral white;
3. Also, the diameter of the flasks, which may be 7, 9, 12 and 17 mm.
4. The shape of the CFL are:
- U-shaped (3 hdugovye, hdugovye 4, 6 tidugovye);
- in a spiral (there are 3 - 85 Watt).
Lamps in the form of a spiral slightly smaller in contrast to the U-shaped due to the length, but they are equal in power.Exterior not affect the functionality of the lighting device.But spiraling lights cost more because of the more labor-intensive techniques of production.
advantages of fluorescent lamps ↑
- reduces the cost of electricity by 80% without compromising the light flux, which is the same as that of incandescent lamps.
- Long life (up to 15 ths. Hours).What is 6-14 times greater than with a conventional light bulb.This makes it possible to install them in the places where it may be difficult noticed frequent light equipment (for example, in a room with high ceilings).
- produces less heat than usual incandescent lamps.This allows the use of small high power CFL particularly complex designs lamps, sconces, chandeliers.In such lighting devices Incandescent able to melt the wire or plastic part of the cartridge.
- Light CFL much more gentle to the eye and spreads much more evenly.This is achieved through the special design of the instrument.After all, the housing area of fluorescent lamps greater than that of the spiral filament devices.
- CFLs can have a variety of color temperatures.This means that the color and it may be different, for example, 2700 K - warm white light of 4200 K - daylight, 6400 K - cool-white color.Color temperature is measured in Kelvin.Moreover, the "cold" color temperature, so it is closer to red than a "warmer" - in order to blue.Thus, using CFLs can vary the lighting, making it a much more original.
Criteria for choosing a fluorescent lamp ↑
- size.It is necessary to immediately figure out if the lamp is suitable in size, whether it will enter into the cartridge chandelier or lamp.In other words - you need to choose the right base.
- lamp power.This will determine the intensity of the luminescence.For residential premises is not recommended to buy CFL capacity in excess of 15 - 25 watts, as from the more powerful device light will be very bright.
- Lifetime.It is desirable to choose the lamp with the longest lifetime.
- color temperature.You need to have an idea of the color shades and choose the best for your space.In the large hall, usually gather a lot of people, it is better to install CFLs neutral-white color, in the break room, probably - a warm-white color.
- price.Cheaper cost lamp U-shaped flask.
- Disadvantages of CFLs.Whatever the benefits of energy-saving lamps had no - harm from them is also possible.Because they contain mercury, which belongs to the class of risk 1 (the most poisonous).The fluorescent energy saving light bulbs mercury is in vapor form.If it is broken, the mercury begins to spread easily through the air.When injected into the human lung where it accumulates, spreading to other areas, and for a long time does not appear, harming health.Fluorescent lamps contain from 1 to 70 mg of mercury.
If broken energy-saving lamp, an urgent need to collect the remains in any capacity, and firmly close it, treat the surface on which the mercury solution of potassium permanganate.This room should be thoroughly aired.
specifications of LED lamps ↑
second type of lamp, which relate to energy-saving, LED lamps are.They are available as complete devices (lamps) and elements of lamps (LED lamps directly).They are used in the home, in the workplace, may have a different view, they produced almost beneath all types of caps.
- Actually LEDs
- boards to which they are attached
- radiator which cools the LEDs
- ventilation openings intended for air circulation
light beam LED lamps is narrow, about 60 degrees.Because of this, rooms are used for lighting lamps with lenses that extend light output.But, for example, table lamps that require a narrow beam of light, use a lamp without a lens.
Types of LED devices ↑
They differ structurally and, depending on their scope.
Depending on where used LED lamps are distinguished:
- Led-lamps for general lighting of apartments and offices
- LEDs for interior lighting
- LED lamps for landscaping and exterior architectural lighting
- Explosion-Proof LED Lamp
- Outdoor LED luminaires
- Industrial LED spotlights
Style design features of the body, as well as depending on the properties of the emitted light are distinguished:
- Led-lamps for general purposes.This is the highest quality sources of scattered light, pleasant to the eye as close to daylight.They are used in residential premises and offices
- Led-directional light lamps c.Used to illuminate the trading showcase, in the interior lighting
- linear LED lamps.Looks like an elongated tube with swivel cap.By configuring them can be easily changed by the angle of the lamp.Used mainly in offices
There are LED bulbs, and by the type of cap:
- the bulb (T).This lamp tube.They are made with a special swivel cap, made in several sizes from 15.9 mm (T5) to 38.0 mm (T12).
- Cap Edison (E).This lamp with threaded system is connected to a power source.It is considered the most common type of design of the cap.The marking after E is determined figure which characterizes the diameter of the threaded joint.Standard sizes - E27 and E14.They are designed for operation in the network 220 do not require connection adapters.
- pin base (G).These lamps are connected to the cartridge by means of a pin.Fixing plugs look like a pair of contacts of a certain length and thickness (can be either standard (for 220V) and low voltage.
- Other types of caps that are rarely found:
- S - soffit;
- R - Depressedcontact;
- In -shtiftovoy;
- P - focusing.
The main advantages of LED lamps ↑
- characterized by a very long life, up to 100 thousand.
- hours consumes little power (about 8 times less when comparedto conventional incandescent lamps)
- They are absolutely harmless, does not contain harmful substances to break them scary, so safe to use. It is easy to be disposed of.
Landmarks buy LED lamps ↑
- Brightness. It should focus on the capacity of 12-20watts.
- Light color.The manufacturer usually indicates the package color temperature lamp.And the higher it is, the whiter the light.
- Lighting angle.For general lighting lamps are buying a lens.For spotlights do not need it.
- The color rendering index, which should be no less than 90%.
We reviewed the main types and characteristics of all the main energy-saving lamps.We hope that this information will help you make the right choice to buy a lamp with the optimal settings best suited for your particular room lighting.