What is surge protection, and all about him: methods and protection devices

By Admin | Garden And Buildings / Communication
21 May 2016

Do we live in a city or in a village - it does not matter.In any case all we use electricity.This lighting, and various household appliances designed to make our lives more comfortable.However, our network is not always smooth voltage that can maintain stable operation of the electrical equipment.Quite the contrary - when output voltage of the well-known rules are quite possible failure of technology, especially electronic.That is why the surge protection is becoming increasingly necessary, as the majority of modern devices differ considerable price and value.

Content

Fluctuations in voltage ↑

So why do we constantly run the risk of losing their own property?The reason, in most cases, one - at the moment the national system of energy supply can not cope with the work.Each of us knows that the network should be 220 V. But in

fact, the voltage depending on the network load varies, sometimes even in a fairly wide range.This is most evident in rural areas where the power supply system is much weaker than in the city.

Power
electrical power distribution system

Because of what is happening?And you try to remember when they were built power stations and other elements of the supply of electricity.Remembered?Well, at least roughly?Now think of what it is (for individuals) expected electrical engineers, creating a whole system.Lighting, refrigerator, iron, TV, maybe even a heater and simple washing machine - and this is the maximum!

And what we have now?Literally in the last 20-30 years, the number of household appliances has increased enormously, on the one hand, greatly improving our lives, and on the other, particularly increasing energy consumption.That's the old system can not cope with the new requirements.And it is unlikely in the near future this will change.You yourself know perfectly well that invest in the global reconstruction of the state will not.Therefore, we have to take care of themselves to everyone in the house was in order.

Now let's talk in more detail about the voltage drops.Most often, the voltage changes in the network rather smoothly, and with the loads of almost all our instruments and apparatus cope well while remaining operational.After all, even the most "gentle" devices are designed for voltage drops in the range of 198-242 V. But there are times when the voltage increases to limits sharp pulse, and then just as suddenly falls.That's the situation called - jump voltage.Are there any specific reasons for such jumps?Lists the most basic:

  • simultaneous activation or deactivation of a large number of electrical equipment (usually this is where a number are industries that consume really big power)
  • open neutral conductor (in this case just triggered the very reason that wealready discussed - the old equipment, and even if bad service just can not cope with the load and the wire zero phase burns, causing a short circuit)
  • error when connecting the wires at the general switchboard (mainly because of the incompetence of those who do,it can be as drunk electrician, and too arrogant landlord)
  • lightning, came on the power line, as well as gaps in these lines (for example, in connection with the fall of them trees)
General switchboard
old equipment in the panelwith poor service

And whatever the cause of a power surge, guess we simply can not.Therefore, should take care of protection against this scourge.

Ways to protect against voltage surges ↑

Of course, the best way to protect would be reconstruction of the power distribution system in at least one particular building and the involvement of its service competent electrician, but - and this is clear to any person living in an apartment house - aoption impracticable.Will you alone pay for all this?A replacement of the wiring only in the apartment does not guarantee protection from power surges.Have seen, the reasons are just jumps to a common equipment, for which, in theory, should meet the governmental structures, for example, housing office.

What we do?In principle, there are a few devices of various types of action that could very well help in the conditions of unstable voltage.In order to reduce or even eliminate the chance of damage to our equipment due to power surges are now the following devices:

  • voltage control relays
  • uninterruptible power
  • voltage

remains to choose the protection that best suits inyour case.

Relays of voltage control ↑

Relays of voltage control in the panel
Power surge protection - connected to the plate voltage control relays
Relays of voltage control
Devices surge protection - individual voltage control relays of the second type
mains voltage control relays
Protection Devices Surge -individual voltage control relays for a few nests

If your house surges are rare (ie, occur in a truly force majeure, such as lightning), you may well come up voltage control relays.Immediately it should stipulate: a similar relay only reads the voltage, but does not affect its stability.What is it?Voltage relay - a small device, disconnect appliances during power surges and voltage is switched on after the return to normal.There are different types of priborchiki, which can be divided into two types:

  • common power surge protection, is mounted in a panel (control cabinet) and protects all of your apartment or house
  • device for individual devices, similar to an extension cord that has the nestoutlets for one or more connections

When buying a voltage relay to properly calculate its power - it should be slightly larger than the capacity of all energy consumers connected to the relay.Therefore, the individual relays that connect to the network, it is much more convenient in the selection, as there is all calculated on the number of outlets.

These relays are comfortable and not very expensive, but, unfortunately, from the long-term changes in voltage (persisting for a long time to increase or decrease the voltage) will not protect.Well, do you like it when your appliances or completely all the electricity in the apartment permanently disabled.

Uninterruptible Power ↑

UPS - uninterruptible power supply (name in English UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply) - as quite clear from the title, can give some slack-time for electrical or electronic devices during a power outage on the network due to built-in rechargeablebatteries.However, in addition, some species can even act as a stabilizer, giving the output voltage is normal.

UPS - different types
Protection Devices Surge - uninterruptible power supply various types

So all UPS can be divided into three types:

  • device backup scheme (Off-Line-UPS) simply switches the power to the connected equipment on the battery (back-up) during a power failure
  • device interactive circuit (Line-Interactive-UPS) in addition to switching to the backup power supply circuit aligns the small voltage drops due to the built-in stabilizers
  • device with a double conversion mode (On-line-UPS) constantly adjusts the frequency and voltage,outputted

Each type of UPS has its drawbacks.For example, Off-Line-UPS spends switching power supply from 4 to 12 ms, but quiet and cheap.And On-line-UPS because of the complexity of noise, heated and very expensive.But there was the owner - a gentleman that you liked, and then choose.

Do not forget to pay attention to choosing the UPS capacity, the capacity of the battery (battery life), battery life and the ability to replace them, the configuration of outlets, as well as the width of the range of supply voltage, which can stabilize the UPS.Since the bulk of UPS bought for the PC, all these characteristics are quite important and should be chosen taking into account the specifications of your computer.

Surge ↑

One of the most reliable but also the most expensive types of device protection against voltage surges is a line conditioner.These devices provide a normal output voltage regardless of the mains voltage.This is an excellent outlet for these options when changing voltage part or even permanent.

Automatic voltage regulator
Devices surge protection - automatic voltage

necessary to understand what the stabilizers must be selected in a variety of cases.The most common stabilizers are divided according to the principle of action:

  • relay - the most inexpensive, not very powerful, but their specifications are quite acceptable for appliances
  • servo (electromechanical) Surprisingly, despite the higher price, these devices for some qualitydid not reach the relay
  • electronic (thyristor or triac), virtually silent, with good performance and protection from surges, the normal power and precision, decent durability, and the corresponding price
  • electronic double conversion - this stabilizer mostthe necessary technical specifications (accuracy, speed, and surge protection) is currently the best, but the price is the maximum

stabilizers can be single-phase and three-phase (for home use - single-phase) to be connected to the entire home network or to a separate technicaldevice, stationary and portable.Selecting a stabilizer for its own needs, it is necessary to know the power of devices that you are going to connect to the regulator, as well as the limits of voltage.In order not to get lost in all of this data, it is best to use the help in the selection of experts who will be able to choose the best option as the protective properties, and price.

After analyzing all this information becomes quite clear that the reliable protection of our property from surges can provide except that a super (and therefore super expensive) voltage.However, a clear understanding of what is happening in the power supply, you can choose the best options for a device or devices designed to save our expensive equipment from voltage problems.In this case it is necessary to see a specialist, who will be able to identify the main problems in the network and since this knowledge to start the selection of protective devices.As they say in the old days: my house - my fortress, and defense lines continues today, albeit on a slightly different level.

Video on protection against harmful stress ↑