abundance of modern household appliances in the apartments makes high demands on the grid.Often, an electrician in the apartment of old housing already served its purpose and does not tolerate high loads from a variety of both included in the network devices.For new buildings is not as critical as it is possible to plan everything in advance and make a margin by applying modern technology.But if after the acquisition of the apartment you find the old wiring or low-power, it will require replacement of fulfillment of major overhaul of the whole apartment.For replacement and installation specialists can invite, but you can do everything yourself.
Rules wiring ↑
Electricity in the apartment with his hands - the matter that requires increased attention to the work carried out, strict compliance with safety standards and regulations for installat
slightest error can cause a short circuit and as a consequence - fire.Therefore, there are some certain rules, following which can make high-quality wiring.
1. The first thing you need to create a project of power supply flat.This document includes a circuit wiring harness, power backup system, if present, the list of proposed equipment and calculations of power and loads.Also in the project documentation specifies the type of wire and cable, the method and location of pads, the amount of materials.
2. For the wiring in an apartment, you can use the following types of wires and cables with copper core and a shell of nonflammable materials or low smoke-forming ability: VVG-2 * 6 or VVG-5 * 6 for connection to the shield V.R.U.,VVG-3 * 2.5 for the main wiring to the junction box and socket, VVG-3 * 1.5 for the wiring of raspredkorobok to switch lighting and appliances.The apartment can be installed machines following capacity: 16 A, 20 A and 25 A to 16 A can be installed for lighting, and 20 A - for sockets.A 25 is suitable for high-power devices.
3. For stationary high-power devices should be kept separate lines and install individual machines.Also, to improve the security necessary to divide the lines of sockets and lighting fixtures with switches.
4. All shields lighting, vending machines, meters, sockets and switches should be easily accessible.
5. The switches are installed near the doorway next to the door handle at a height of 80 cm or 1.5 m.
6. Outlets are located at a height of 1 m. This is to prevent short circuits in the flooded areas.We also recommend that a certain number of outlets: in a residential area 1 socket 6 m2, in the corridors at least one outlet 10 m2, kitchen - at least 5, but can be more if planned for a large number of appliances.Installation of outlets in the toilet is forbidden, in the bathroom, you can put a subject lining separate lines and distribution transformer.For safety sockets should be placed 50 cm from the gas and electric cookers.
7. Laying of wires and cables in the apartment can be hidden or open way.It is necessary to adhere to the following requirements: laying is carried out strictly in horizontal and vertical cutting grooves or ducts, with horizontal laying height from the floor must be at least 200 mm, 150 mm from the ceiling, from the eaves and beams 50 - 100 mm.Carrying out a vertical strip, it is necessary to deviate from the door and window openings of at least 100 mm.
8. To be able to repair or replace the wiring all wires is recommended to hide in a special sleeve.
9. When laying need to make sure that the wires do not touch the metal parts of the building structures.
10. Wiring harness is held in special distribution boxes and bare ends are joined together by soldering, pressing or special tips CV.Prohibited the connection of copper and aluminum wires.
11. In the closed method of installation are prohibited from making deep Grooves in bearing walls in order to preserve their integrity and overall strength.
12. All works are carried out at a dead network in the apartment.
electrical installation in an apartment ↑
Conduct electrician in the apartment is not difficult for those who know how to handle the tool.Installation electricians in the apartment There are two ways: the hidden and open.To flush pad is vmurovyvanie wiring in the walls, ceilings and void under the floor and gypsum boards.To open method of installation include wiring and cables in special boxes, cable - channels using staples and clips.Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages.To perform the installation you first need to push all the furniture and appliances from the wall when being overhauled apartment, remove all debris.
flush gasket ↑
This method of mounting the most dusty and dirty, as have Stroebe walls and ceiling or tearing the floor covering.So do his best during the overhaul of the apartment.If the project is scheduled distributing electricity on the walls, then put on the walls and ceiling space for the wiring, take into the hands of hammer or grinder and cut the grooves of a certain width and depth.Depth choose on the basis that after laying wiring or cable layer of plaster will be no more than 10 mm, the width is unlimited.Designated raspredkorobok sockets and cut out with a special crown.Mindful of the supporting walls and make them Grooves are not too deep.
The flat panel houses floor decks have internal voids, which can also lend the wiring for the lights.Today, more popular monolithic construction with brick to interior ceilings in such apartments Grooves can be made in all the walls, most importantly, do not engage the bearing monolithic beams.The most economical option is the flush-mounted installation wiring under the floor.The main thing that should be noted in this case - the presence of the corrugations of each wire.This is done for convenience in case of repair or replacement of wires and for additional insulation.
After Grooves will be equipped, you can install electrical panel lighting and laying wires.Himself plate can be attached or embedded in the wall.In new houses for him a special niche in the old it can be secured to the wall with screws.Inside the panel are installed machine, from which will depart wire VVG-3 * 2.5 in the outlet, and major highways.From raspredkorobok to switch lighting and paving the wire VVG-3 * 1.5.For stationary high power devices installed separately from the line wire VVG-3 * 2.5.
the mounting location of the connection points do release wires 15 - 20 cm. Now connect the wires to the junction box in a single network.The easiest and most secure connections will use the CV.That during the connection wires do not mix, they can hang a tag with a specific label.Thereafter, using a tester to check the whole chain damage and errors.If all goes well, then walled up all the wires, on-site switches, sockets, lighting.
Outdoor wiring ↑
For areas where it is forbidden or impossible to lay wires hidden methods usedoutdoor wiring.For these purposes, use boxes, cable - channels or special clips.Installation is quite simple and is carried out only on the walls and ceiling.The first thing you do is outline the place zasverlivaem wiring and mounting holes with a pitch of 40 - 50 cm, if you place the wire is less than 0.5 m, then take a step of 15 cm for two points fastener.After that fasten to the wall or ceiling boxes, cable - TV or clip.What will it be - the choice is yours.In the field wiring to install an external junction box and wire connections, wiring and installation of connection points is carried out just as in flush mounting.The advantage of an open installation is easy access to the entire wiring and disadvantage - not too aesthetic.
video lesson for household electrical ↑
electrical installation in an apartment can be considered complete.It remains to connect to a power grid.It will have to contact the electricians of the housing, but they have every right to carry out the connection to the meter.If everything was done correctly, and no violations of rules and regulations, the electrician without question give good connection.