electrical network is one of the most important components of any home.Without it, today it is difficult to imagine our life, whether it is in a country house, office or apartment.On the other hand, we are all so accustomed to it that often in the repair of apartments of importance for work related to electrical wiring, which includes wires and plates, sockets and switches, lamps and appliances.Electrical work in the apartment - the rules and advice on the implementation of which are given in this article - is to ensure power supply throughout the apartment, installation of various types of lighting systems, emergency lighting systems, as well as, if necessary, installation of power warranty.
electrical wiring work is preceded by a plan of work.
It should be comfortable and safe to use because electricity is an area where negligence is unacceptable.At repair of apartments electrical work generally consist of 2 stages.
first stage - marking ↑
produced at the beginning of the repair, after the remodeling was carried out and dismantling.
At this stage, perform the following works:
- layout places the installation of lighting and other equipment;
- marking the passage of wiring portions;
- laying pipe;
- install insulators, fixing switches, sockets, etc .;
- routing and securing cables;
- installation of separation equipment, electrical receivers, enclosures, boxes branching vmazka Enclosures;
- attaching wires;
- inspection and test.
second stage - direct mounting ↑
Works are made immediately after the finish of walls, floors and ceilings of the room.These include:
- installation of sockets;
- installation of lighting fixtures - chandeliers, spots, lighting fixtures;
- installation of power consumers.
Electrical work in the apartment ↑
Electricity generally consists of:
- mechanical works;
- mounting wiring accessories (switches, sockets, lamps, etc .;
- cable connections into a single system;
- commissioning works.
Warning! All electrical work must be carried out in the apartment only by professionals!
How to dismantle↑
to this type of work is the removal of the old switches, sockets, and if necessary - and the wires.
first rule : to avoid electric shock during the dismantling of the old equipment and old wiring, the switchboard must beturn off the power.
rules of the markup ↑
Application Markup made according to the design documentation. On all surfaces (where necessary) premises designated by the line cabling and wiring, the installation location of switches, sockets, lighting fixtures.Currently outlet set at 40 cm and switches - 80 centimeters from the floor.Exceptions are sockets in the kitchen: they are put on the 10 cm above the table top.
At this stage, we investigate and take into account the laying of other networks (water, sewage, heating, air conditioning, television and computer networks, security system).
Mechanical work - shtroblenie ↑
This kind of electrical work includes the drilling of walls (breaching cutting grooves) under the hidden wiring and to enter the premises of the supply cable.
Shtroblenie done using punch grinder with a diamond blade or wall chaser.It is dusty and noisy job, so you need to work in a respirator, goggles and headphones.
second rule .Before shtroblenie necessarily done continuity walls to find hidden wiring as the intersection with the previously laid wiring can cause a short circuit or even a fire.
Under the wiring needed Stroebe hole exactly vertically at a distance of not less than 10 centimeters from the angles of intersection of the walls, windows and doors, and horizontally - 1520 centimeters from the plinth, 20 cm from the ceiling, 10 cm from the eaves and beams.This is just so that later, when the walls other finishing and decorating works, not to damage the wiring.
Rule Three. recesses for switches and sockets are produced by drilling holes of circular section with a diameter of 80 mm.
can not be covered by the general indent wiring and cable television - will be much interference.
desirable to make the circuit wiring after wiring.
Cabling, wiring ↑
After partitioning, determine the method of installation, produce wiring or in the clear in special boxes or hidden behind the plastering, suspended ceilings, building construction.Indoors is most often used for concealed installation.
This method is more secure, but in case of damage the installation location is not available, and as a result there is a need to install new wiring.
Tip!To purchase the appropriate cable section, you must calculate the total load of all appliances in the apartment.
To avoid overloading the power supply system is divided into several lines and each of them are connected certain consumers, including sockets, switches, lamps and various electrical equipment.The amount of power on any line should not be more than 4 kW.
For equipment with high energy - electric stoves, washing machines, electric fireplaces, whirlpools, electric heaters connected to separate lines, each of which must be equipped with theircircuit breaker that allows the electricity network to protect against overloads and short circuits.
Tip!When the power supply wiring in the apartment need to respect the principle of single-color: neutral conductor - blue Phase conductor - red or brown, the ground wire - yellow-green color.
installation wiring accessories ↑
When performing this type of work is necessary to observe certain rules guaranteeing the security of the home and the people living in it.
Rule Four .In an open wiring switches and sockets installation is carried out on Escutcheon thickness of 10 mm and 70 mm in diameter, made of materials that are not conductive - wood, plexiglass, and others.
Rule Five .Boxes placed in special recesses in the wall, fixing them and then a plaster solution.
the six- .Switches are set to break the phase conductor (not zero), which goes to the patron luminaire.This will allow us to disconnect the mains at short circuit, as well as provide safe replacement cartridges and tubes.Installation of switches should be carried out so that the light switch going on by pressing the top button or the upper part of the key.
Rule Seven .Sockets must be connected parallel to the mainline electrical wires.
Rule eight. Separation box, as well as sockets and electricity meters need to be installed in locations easily accessible for maintenance and repair.
Connection wires into a single system ↑
With Wire connections raspaechnyh boxes are special terminals.
wires included in the terminal boxes, must be marked.
It is necessary for the subsequent maintenance of wiring.
- visual inspection and verification of compliance with the rules of the mounted electrical installation of electrical installation work and project documentation;
- measurement of insulation resistance of electrical wiring;
- check for the chain, the quality of protection and grounding devices;
- RCD function test;
- quality control of the assembly of all sockets, hooks for hanging lamps.
No matter in which room and how the electrical installation works are carried out, they must be carried out exclusively by specialists, because they have a lot of specifics.If you paint the walls or, for example, pokleit wallpaper can be alone, such a complex and important matter as the wiring in an apartment is better left to professionals with special knowledge.