All people probably familiar with the concept of "the underground part of the construction," that is the foundation, which takes over the load and transmits it to the base.The foundation is of several types, including continuous footing with their hands is very popular in private buildings, because its construction costs are quite reasonable, and the technique of simple.The device strip foundation - the process is fairly simple, most importantly, to explore some technological features.This type of foundation is expedient to lay at a shallow method of laying on dry nepuchinistyh ground, and if the soil at the site deep freeze, the construction of strip foundation is more expensive because of the large volume of earthworks.
What is a kind of foundation tape?This particular strip of concrete that runs around the perimeter of the house.This tape is laid under external and internal walls of buildings, but the shape of the section should be the same all around.
Strip foundation - the use ↑
- for buildings with heavy beams used monolithic, made of reinforced concrete and metal types of strip foundation;
- for structures with brick, concrete and stone walls - the density of & gt;1000-1300 kg / m;
- heterogeneity of soil at if there is a risk of uneven foundation settlement.Then tape the foundation acts as a unitary structure, which transfers power and, therefore, the house wall will not be deformed and cracks will not be;
- in homes with basement or ground floor walls of this type form the foundation wall of the basement.
Choosing the type of foundation - a crucial moment, because it is an important structural element throughout the building.If at the beginning of the construction will be laid an error, that is the foundation planned to be incorrect, or building material spared, then without serious consequences if not indispensable.
It may be skewing the foundation, horizontal or vertical deformation, precipitation and cracks in the supporting structure.A solid foundation - a guarantee of capital and durability of the structure.
Lifetime foundation belt type ↑
This rate depends on the building materials used:
- rubble in cement mortar and monolithic concrete - up to 150 years;
- precast concrete ribbons - 50-75 years;
- brick strip foundation - 30-50 years
types of structures used in the construction of buildings ↑
Depending on the design features, strip foundations are divided into:
- monolithic, that is made on the construction site;
- teams, made of reinforced concrete slabs, which are manufactured in a factory and assembled on the construction site with a crane.
Types of strip foundation ↑
Choice melkozaglublennogo basement or buried depending on the load.Melkozaglublenny strip foundation with his own hands is best suited for lightweight constructions: wooden houses, foam concrete and frame, as well as the small brick.He gets a slabopuchinistyh soil, its depth is about 50-70 cm.
At the same time, for structures with massive walls and ceilings used a recessed strip foundation, primarily on heaving soils.In addition, this type of foundation is needed in the planning of the house basement or garage.Its construction requires a considerable amount of material and its depth of 20-30 cm below the freezing ground.Under the walls inside the building maybe less depth - 40-60 cm.
materials for the construction of strip foundation ↑
- rubble concrete foundation - sand-cement mixture with the addition of large stones.This is a fairly solid foundation, wide - 200mm - 1000mm.His device requires the creation of a sand or gravel bed, at least 100 mm thick, for leveling ground and convenience of placing the mixture.
- Strip foundation of brick used for above and underground part of the foundation for the basement parts.But its construction is necessary to remember: brick material is hygroscopic and wet breaks even minor frosts, so it needs to be waterproof.Brick type of strip foundation is suitable for houses with walls of one - half a brick or wooden frame.
- reinforced concrete strip foundation - a mixture of sand, gravel, cement, reinforced reinforcement bars or metal mesh.It is the most common material, because it is quite cheap, durable and makes it possible to create a monolithic structures most complex configurations.If the site is sandy, it is an excellent choice of material.
- Foundation blocks and slabs - a strong, reliable, they are suitable for almost all types of buildings and all types of soil.
Construction technology belt type foundation ↑
Important: the choice of workers - a crucial moment, which should not be ignored, because the human factor in the construction takes a high position
Melkozaglublenny strip foundation involves the use of building materials such as reinforced concrete and rubble concrete.
construction of strip foundation with his hands, it melkozaglublennogo consists of these basic steps:
Preparatory work - cleaning, counting ↑
This Site clearance and deliveryall necessary materials.On the ground are marked axis of the house, as well as fixed with stakes and string arrangement of the basic elements of the future of the foundation.
This operation must be performed carefully and accurately, it is necessary to check the angles, which must necessarily be 90 degrees, and yet to be verified mark trench bottom (in the corners and at the points of intersection).Levelling platform under construction must be greater than the dimensions of the house (in each direction & gt; 2-5 m).
trench - to develop to form ↑
trench dug manually or excavator.In the latter case, the trench bottom should be cleaned up and leveled manually.Next shielded pit, and on the bottom of the trench is placed cushion (120-200 mm) of fine gravel or sand.She watered and well compacted.On the pillow fits the plastic film, as waterproofing material, or whether it is filled with cement mortar to prevent water left in the ground and did not deteriorate the strength characteristics of the cushion.
Construction shuttering its variants ↑
Formwork for this foundation is made of planks (one side planed) thickness not less than 40-50 mm.And also widely applicable panelboard collapsible formwork (steel).Installed formwork spacers firmly fixed to the walls of the trench.It is extremely important to carefully align the plumb vertical wall, because the accuracy of this index depends on the period of operation of the foundation.And we must not forget about holes for sewerage and water supply system.
Installation fittings - bearing structural elements ↑
Simultaneously with the arrangement and installation of the formwork is done valves collected in cages.Number of twigs, their location and the diameter specified in the project.In general, the frame consists of two vertical reinforcement strips, fastened by horizontal rods.How much will these twigs, depends on the depth of the foundation.
Pouring concrete ↑
important: we must remember that the concrete mix by pouring from a height greater than 1.5 m, exposed to the bundle.Therefore, it is desirable to use a portable chute
At this stage, the concrete is poured slowly into the mold, the layers 15-20 cm thick.Thus, each compacted layer to not voids were formed.And for this purpose rattles wall formwork.Important - solution of concrete should be tough but not liquid.
basement waterproofing ↑
7-10 days after casting mold is removed.For basement waterproofing mastic asphalt is used, its outer walls are coated and bonded waterproofing material.A remarkable material for waterproofing roofing material there.After some time checked the quality of gluing, ie, does not exfoliate if waterproofing of the foundation walls.
Backfill - shutdown ↑
At this stage of construction should perform backfill foundation sinuses (medium size sand).His ram layers and fill with water.Thus it is necessary to monitor the state of waterproofing, so that it remains intact.
Possible errors and their impact on ↑
- not take into account the properties of the soil, is not determined the groundwater level and depth of freezing - cracks and sediment.
- low quality materials and poor performance of the entire spectrum of work - poor quality and short-lived foundation.
It goes without saying that such mistakes should not be.Therefore, the approach to the construction of strip foundation has to be meaningful and reasonable.After the construction of the house - a large-scale work, so at the first stage as well as on all others, should not be mistakes and errors in the calculation and construction processes.
Video instruction "tab strip foundation» ↑