Building a house is a complex, time-consuming and responsible process.The process of construction of a residential building includes several stages, one of which is mounted to the foundation of the house.This stage is one of the key, as the quality of the foundation determines the durability of construction, the protection of it from a variety of internal and external factors, the degree of security.Literate approach to the installation of foundations to avoid many mistakes.In addition, it should take into account the fact that the experts distinguish several types of foundations, each of which has its own characteristics and is suitable for a particular soil type structure.Depending on the design features decided to allocate the tape, pile, slab and pier foundation.And now - a little bit about each of them.
Strip foundation - for home with a basement ↑
Strip foundation is ideal in the construction of residential buildings with heavy walls and floor slabs.That is why it is located around the perimeter of the outer walls and for the other regions with a higher degree of load.In addition, the presence of an underground garage, cellar or basement is another argument in favor of a continuous footing.In a sufficiently general form of this type of foundation is a tape, buried in the ground.They transferred all load bearing elements from the house: columns, walls.Support for tapes are baseplates so-called distribution cushions.This design allows evenly over a larger area to distribute the load on the existing ground.Strip foundations are divided into types according to different criteria.For the execution, they are divided into:
- National.They are arranged from concrete blocks, which are mounted directly on the construction site using a crane.
- Monolithic.Such foundations initially laid on the construction site.
Depending on the material used, usually distinguished:
- brick strip foundations are made on the clay solid bricks.
- rubble concrete.For their bookmarks used concrete with a large vehicle, which is used as coarse gravel and small boulders.
- Concrete strip foundations that require concrete class B15-B30 and fittings.
pile foundations for the construction of houses on soft ground ↑
This type of foundation is suitable for soils with different low load capacity at relatively large load on a residential building.It should be noted that the construction of the foundation of the house on stilts, gained wide popularity due to too high costs of materials and high performance.Pile foundation is a pile group or individual piles, which are combined with each other by means of top plates or beams.
material for the production of slabs and beams is a concrete or reinforced concrete.This design provides stability and security of a residential building in the future when a sufficiently large depth lies soft ground: sagging, loose sand.Pile foundations also differ in the type of manufacturing and materials used.By type of manufacturing can be identified:
- Driven foundations.Laid using special machines to previously undeveloped areas.
- pressed pile foundations.The piles are pressed into the ground with powerful hydraulic pumps.
- Ramming foundations.With their tab in the pre-drilled well supplied concrete.
Depending on the material used, pile foundations may be:
- Metal.Piles are metal pipe.
- Wood.Piles are made of treated pine and are ideal for small wooden houses, whose height does not exceed the 2 floors.
- concrete.Such foundations for reinforced concrete structures and is made of reinforced concrete.
- combined.For this type of foundation and used metal and concrete, which allows to build houses in areas with complex engineering-geological conditions.
monolithic plate - universal reliable basis ↑
slab foundations often lying on the ground surface or recessed into it only slightly.It is a reinforced slab made of reinforced concrete, the thickness of which may range from 0.3 m - 1 m. Reinforcement plate is carried out via valves diameter 12mm - 25mm.Before laying the slabs is preparing the surface of the low-strength concrete or sand that allows you to align the ground.
slab foundation can be used on soft ground, as it promotes the efficient allocation of the load from residential homes throughout the area laid slabs.Moreover, it allows to take the horizontal and vertical deformation.Most often, this type of foundation is used for the construction of buildings above two floors.He cast performed directly on the construction site.It should be noted that the slab foundation is suitable for houses that have a complex structure.However, in this case, the plate should have expansion joints are cut through the slab into individual pieces.
pier foundation - the choice of cost-↑
lay the foundation for the house with their hands can opt for a columnar base.Pier foundation - is poles loaded on a well-defined depth in the soil, or concrete immersed in a pre-drilled hole.The pillars are connected by a top of concrete beams.Columnar foundations are optimal in the construction of low-rise buildings of 1-2 floors.The weight of the materials used for the construction must not be too large.Ideally, the walls of the house are made of wood or other lightweight counterpart.For mesh objects it is also suitable pier foundation, but it is worth considering that it is used only on those grounds which are not subject to swelling.Depending on the type of performance pier foundation can be:
- monolithic.Made of concrete.
material can serve:
- Stone.Suitable for construction of residential houses with a rather heavy structures.
- tree.The most commonly used pine or oak.Suitable for small wooden buildings.
- Clay bricks.
- Concrete reinforcing reinforcing cage.Used in heavy construction of houses and buildings without a basement.
general recommendations on how to lay the foundation for the house ↑
When deciding on how to lay the foundation of the house, which will provide the reliability and durability, it is first necessary to be guided by some general recommendations.
They are suitable for all types of foundation, being universal, and represent a list of factors that are recommended to pay attention when selecting and laying the foundation.
- condition soil type.
- freezing depth.
- load on the ground of a residential building designs.
- Availability basement or underground garage.
- service life of a house under construction.
- used for the laying of the foundation materials.
- presence of underground utilities.
Clearly, solving the problem of how to build the foundation for the house and avoid mistakes, it is necessary to know the possible flaws.A common mistake can be considered as laying the foundation of the future home on unconsolidated basis (ground).In addition, wrongly will not take into account the effect of lateral pressure exerted on the walls of the ground foundation.Wrong calculation of the bearing capacity of the soil can also lead to a host of negative consequences, and the lack of competent calculating the reference area of the base of the house.Do not neglect and activities related to diversion of water from the basement.
main stages of laying the foundation of an example device belt structure ↑
question of how to make the foundation for the house properly, would resolve a clear sequence of actions.Thus, we can distinguish five main stages of installation of foundations.
In the first stage of laying the foundation is determined by soil conditions and the depth of the water table.To do this, dig a hole depth of about 1 m and assess the composition of the soil, the presence of water in the pit.If it has, then the depth of the foundation should exceed 0.5 m, and in its absence - the depth of the foundation may not exceed 0.5 m.
then carried marking sites and removal of topsoil.After this procedure, the perimeter of the future house dug a trench, the bottom of which is aligned with sand.
The third step is carried out directly pouring the foundation.To do this, shuttering is manufactured from a specially prepared boards or plywood.The very concrete pouring is carried out of a particular class.Density of concrete solution is directly proportional to the strength of the foundation: the thick of the solution, the stronger the foundation of the house.The width of the foundation should be greater than the thickness of the corresponding wall by about 20 cm.
then carried out to waterproofing the basement.For this purpose, the foundation is entered at ground level 2 layers of roofing material, and then continues its tab to the required height.The underground part of the foundation may be missed previously hot bitumen.
After the waterproofing layer is carried out laying bricks or blocks, but in opposite walls of the foundations made holes for ventilation, thereby avoiding unwanted moisture under the floor of the house.
One way monolithic foundation will present the video tape.
Thus, taking into account a number of nuances, lay the foundation of the house with his own hands is not so difficult.