selection and installation of foundations in the low-rise building is of paramount importance.After all, the strength and reliability of the design of the foundation depends on the quality of construction of the object.It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the soil, the number of storeys of the building being erected, as well as the financial capacity of the owner of the site.Pile foundations on soft ground is indispensable, because it requires pressure to transfer the building to a dense layer, which lies at a certain depth.The device is most effective pile foundation in heaving soils, prone to deep freezing, more than 1.5 meters.In this case the foundation piles of reliable columnar or belt structure.However, in dense soils nobody forbids to use piles.
Advantages of pile foundation ↑
- Reducing the amount spent excavation, which is very important when elevated pile foundation with his own hands.If there is no project in the basement.
- concrete savings.
- Minimizing the complexity of work.
- Reducing the cost of construction.
- Save time.
Construction of pile foundations ↑
used in the construction of various types of construction of pile foundations, which are influenced by such factors as:
- Select the type of piles;
- Arrangement piles under the building;
- method of manufacturing piles and immersing them into the ground;
- raft foundation design;
- nature of work in the thickness of the pile of soil.
With industrial construction erection of pile foundation is done by a large number of construction machinery, which is excluded when working with their hands.Therefore, in a holiday cottage and low-rise buildings do not apply all kinds of pile foundations.For example, screw pile shaped drill, without the aid of special equipment in the ground will not be able to spin.
therefore perform helical pile foundation with his hands hard.We'll have to rent a special vehicle, and it will affect the financial side of things.That means we need to pay attention to other structures.
Choice piles for dacha construction ↑
Long rods submerged in the ground already in finished form or manufactured directly in the ground, called piles.Finished products are sharpened on one hand, it facilitates the immersion of the pile into the ground until a solid soil layer.This requires the use of special equipment.
When making piles with their hands in the soil drilled wells, which are then reinforced and poured concrete.For low-rise building pile length should be at least three meters, but no more than six.A more accurate calculation should be entrusted to the designer.From the manner in which conducted the pile penetration into the soil, are distinguished:
- Driven piles that immersion does not require pre-excavation.It provides for the use of special mechanisms - vibrators, vibrovdavlivayuschih and pinch devices;
- printed and reinforced concrete piles, which are obtained by pouring concrete in the pre-drilled hole;
- Drilling reinforced concrete piles, which are installed in drilled wells;
- Screw piles, twisted like a drill into the ground with the help of special machines.
The nature of work in the thickness of the soil piles distinguish pile-hanging racks and piles.The first reach a solid layer of soil, and the second - is not based on the geological features of its occurrence.
Bored piles with a raft ↑
Building pile-strip foundation with his own hands, you need to stock up on garden brown or brown TISE, which costs about $ 70.
addition require other tools that, as a rule, the builder is always at hand.
Stages of work:
- Running marking contour of the foundation.
- removed topsoil and soil from the trench to a depth equal to the thickness of the raft foundation.Running formwork.
- Along the perimeter of the future design of the foundation every two meters made pits using a garden drill, having a cross-section size 120-150 mm.The depth of the pit should be below the frost line, and its minimum value is equal to 1500 mm.At the bottom of pit is expanded to a diameter of 350 mm, a height of 300 mm.Further filled five-centimeter layer of sand and compacted.
- The resulting hole is inserted into the shell of the roofing material or glassine paper on a proposed thickness of the pile before the expansion and reinforcement cage, and everything is filled with concrete, which is better to buy ready-made.You can prepare a solution, and their hands, keeping the aspect ratio.To produce a concrete cube is necessary to take 289 kg of cement grade 400, 562 kg of sand, gravel 1375 kg.The amount of water should be no more than 70% by weight of cement.
- Concrete poured into the pile hole must be compacted using vibrators.In its absence, the course is an ordinary wooden tamping, the diameter of which must be less than the reinforcing cage.
- Three hours after setting the exposed surface of the concrete, as well as formwork raft foundation, poured water.For the gradual hardening of concrete it is necessary to close the plastic wrap.After 14-28 days of pile foundation is ready, you can proceed to the next stage of construction.
modular and monolithic grillage ↑
upper part of the pile foundation, called raft, assume the main burden constructed elements of the building, passing it piles,which in turn divide it with the soil.The low-rise building is used as a pile rostverkovy foundation and pile foundation grillage without.Rostwerk may be monolithic or modular.Pile foundations with monolithic grillage to avoid the presence of joints and seams, which are inevitable in a modular design.Recently, however, it is prefabricated gratings are widespread, and the need to comply with the location of the piles to the millimeter.
process of pile foundations with monolithic grillage on video.
As you can see, the pile foundation to build a raft difficult.However, properly executed design does not allow the building sag.Some pile foundations made in the last century Russian masters, are still firmly hold objects erected on them.