construction of a private house in the understanding is accompanied by a whole system of "little things", each of which affects the future comfort.This time we will focus on the thermal insulation of the roof.Of course, the easiest way to entrust all the work on the design and installation of insulation specialists.However, this does not prevent the owner knowledge of basic rights and opportunities, so much easier to detect errors builders in the early stages, when their correction is not yet moved into the category of "rebuild".Besides insulation pitched roof it is not so difficult to understand, many craftsmen generally do with his own hands.
Why do I insulate the roof?↑
people, far from building may not be aware of the importance of roof insulation.However, insulation is really needed - and to reduce the
- roof has the outside air temperature, that is in the winter season from 0 to minus 20-30 degrees;
- in the house air is warm and humid, and the air tends up (everyone knows the laws of physics);
- met with a cold surface, it cools the air and the moisture from it condenses on the beams, rafters and others roofing materials.
Total have constantly moist surface of the roof, which causes wood rot and corrosion of metal parts.What do you think - will serve as the roof in such conditions?So warm - a must!
How to insulate a pitched roof - theory ↑
Proper insulation of the roof - is the installation of so-called heat-insulating "cake" made of several layers performing different functions.The main elements of the "pie" are (from bottom to top):
- inner lining of the attic, the attic space
- air layer
- vapor barrier film
- back air layer
- vlagovetrozaschita with sufficient vapor permeability
- and again air layer
- external roofing
general scheme is surprisingly simple, is not it?And almost anyone on the shoulder to make sure that the project adhere to the above.By the way, for a better understanding of why the layers are arranged in this way, look a little video:
Selection of materials ↑
theory - the theory, but it's time to move on to the practice.And the first thing you need to find all the necessary materials, tracking not only the prices and quality, but also compatibility of components.Consider the basic options for all three categories of materials: gidrobarer, insulation and vapor barrier.
Waterproofing, it - windscreen ↑
choosing material for waterproofing, it should be clearly understood how it must conform to specifications.So reliable gidrobarer should:
- retain water without letting it seep inside, to a heater;
- pass from the inside out steam, which could pass through a layer of insulation;
- have sufficient strength and elasticity for long-term operation;
- maintain their properties over a wide temperature range (from about -40 to + 40 ° C) and under the influence of wind and ultraviolet.
Before going to purchase, it is worth a closer look at various options for moisture protection, available currently in the construction market.The most common types are the following (ascending rates):
- roll - a dozen varieties of roofing, of which more and more popular and the Euro Stekloruberoid, as they can easily be sealed to dock with the ability to tightly zaplavit joints (the joints);
- film - a lot of variations relating to the two categories of polyethylene and polypropylene (which they often are called waterproofing), in which case when laying need to closely monitor the correct orientation waterpermeability parties, but - bonus - in modern films at the edges oftenalready present double sided tape, which is convenient to attach the cloth;
- diffusion membrane - "breathable" material, only moisture passing out.
All submissions are consistent with the above characteristics, well, plus or minus.So choose, on the basis of requests and purse.
should be remembered that the installation Gidrobarer important leaks - the material should envelop the rafters, and between them it should be fixed with a slight sagging (maximum bending - no more than 2 cm at the lowest point)
Insulation for pitched roofs ↑
for insulation andgive the necessary functionality.High-quality insulation material must possess the following qualities:
- low thermal conductivity, and through which heat is stored inside the house (the lower the figure, the thinner the layer of insulation is needed);
- ability for a long time (ie before the end of life) to keep the shape;
- optimum density - heavy insulation under its own weight rather quickly knead, losing their valuable qualities;
- resistance to temperature extremes;
- fire safety;
- environmental friendliness - the insulation should be chemically stable and biologically inert in the normal state, and during heating;
- long service life (with preservation of all useful features)
In principle, materials that meet all the specified properties, quite a lot, especially if you take into account the different brands.However, most often in the mansard roof insulation using two types of insulation:
- mineral (basalt) cotton
And she and the other insulation are available in rolls and plates, the width of which corresponds to the standard mezhstropilnomu distance.Therefore, the calculation and installation of insulation - is the easiest step in the formation of the roof "pie".
Note that laying thermal insulation materials produced in such a way that between the supporting structure and insulation is no gap - a perfect seal will prevent the formation of cold bridges
vapor barrier ↑
Requirements for vapor barriers are very similar to thoseindicated for Gidrobarer, except for one item.Vapour material must meet the following specifications:
- possible complete moisture and vapor permeability;
- high strength;
- sufficient flexibility;
- stability with an annual change of temperature.
Many believe (and rightly so) that the usual thick polyethylene film in quality is consistent with the above list.And still want to expand a little information about the vapor barrier.Now, modern science provides a good selection of membrane materials:
- with reflexive (reflective) layer - has a high thermal insulation of the steam and therefore most suitable for use in the attic apartment type (with living rooms, kitchen and bathroom)
- limited water vapor permeability(transmittance vapor (Sd) in the range of 2-4 m) - different diffusion capacity, which makes it possible to get rid of residual moisture in areas where there is no permanent evaporation (that is, where people do not live permanently)
- variable vapor permeability - changecapacity for the transmission of steam, depending on the moisture (from the Sd = 5 m in a dry state until Sd = 0,2 m wet), which allows to do an air gap between the membrane and the inner skin of the attic space
Now you can choose the materialthat will best meet your desires it, so go for it.
should be remembered that steam (and moisture protection) should be as airtight as possible, so to strengthen the material should be across the bearing elements close to the heater, and the cloth is necessary to impose on each other with a minimum overlap of 10 cm and prokleivat with the most convenient accessories - bilateraltape, glue or adhesive tape
As promised - nothing complicated.But now you can seamlessly monitor the work of roofers, designers, or even make your own installation of roof insulation.Successful construction of everyday life!