If a dacha (Sometimes it happens) is not supplied with water, it is necessary to make it obligatory, because without water does not.Among the most popular methods of obtaining water in a country house is a water well.This method is quite interesting and rational, as well on the water with his own hands - a double benefit: saving money and production of high-quality drinking water.
Signs of clean drinking water ↑
As well in the area equipped to mine from the earth clean water, you need to know on what parameters determined this is the "purity":
- layer of clear water for at least 30 cm;
- nitrate levels - no more than 10 mg per liter;
- least ten coliform per liter of water;
- assessment of the smell and taste - 3 points.
to obtain reliable information ab
Types of water wells, their differences ↑
Underground water is mostly found in two species: the sand and limestone.Also, there is bound to its content in clay, loam, but extraction of water from these rocks for domestic and industrial use is extremely low.
Therefore, water for domestic use is extracted from the bottom of the wells in water-saturated sand or fractured limestone.
Water "in the sand» ↑
These water wells often equipped in their area are people who quite enough drinking water of 0.5 cubic meters per hour (for cooking and watering during the summer).Typically, the depth of such wells ranges of 10-35 m, at least - 40-45 m.
Drilling "on the sand" comes before the first aquifer and not more than two days.Durability of such a well is dependent on the pumping equipment and the reliability of the grid casing.When used correctly, water well will faithfully serve up to 15 years, well and at high intensity of use, this period is reduced to 8 years.
for drilling "on the sand" applies casing (galvanized or black metal), they are interconnected threaded connection or welding.It will take another pipe filter, duplicates it inside the casing string.In the filter pipe diameter smaller than the casing, and at the end it has a hole through which water flows to the surface.The opening is equipped to purify water from sand special filter (metal mesh).But if the well will be used periodically, then after a few years, the filters clogged with silt and should be replaced.
Since the source of water supply in this hole - the top layer of soil aquifer, the purity and high quality indicators and water can not be.Therefore, 3-4 days after the drilling is desirable to pass the test for bacteriological and chemical analysis.
- low drilling costs;
- quick and easy installation of the equipment required for the arrangement.
- uncertainty of the exact location of the aquifer.On neighboring sections of the water it can be easily found in the sand, and at its own may not be;
- the possibility of contamination of the aquifer;
- shorter service life when compared to the artesian well;
- fluctuation of groundwater level.
Well "in the limestone» ↑
Best option - water well drilling to refining area or before construction of the house, as drilling equipment and related appliances take up much space.Equipment artesian wells takes about 1-2 weeks, and the drilling carried out to achieve in the limestone aquifer (50-200 m).
service life of such wells will depend on the quality of the casing and the pipe diameter depends on performance.Today, plastic pipes are quite popular, though, and used steel.Steel pipes are connected by welding or threading.But welding is not the best option, because the joints there is a high likelihood of corrosion.Also undesirable phenomenon have microscopic holes that still remain in the welded joint, they gradually increase, and thus opens the way for the entry of dirt into the water.
drilled borehole washed until visually clean water, as well as for the well "in the limestone" compiled passport indicating the depth, the height of the water level and other key features.
advantages of such wells:
- known in advance about the depth;
- very high fluid loss.Artesian well water can provide a country house with a swimming pool, sauna and several bathrooms, as well as it can be used for gardening;
- constant level of occurrence of water;
- installation of efficient pump;
- high quality water as in deep water is almost not exposed to the adverse effects of pollution sources.Therefore, artesian water does not require additional treatment and disinfection.
But the shortcomings can be attributed only to a tangible cost of the entire spectrum of work, and their own hands to make it impossible due to the hardness of dense sedimentary rocks and a large depth.The water extracted from artesian wells, may have a relatively high salinity.Because, despite the apparent purity, laboratory studies of its structure are needed.
pipes for casing the borehole ↑
The casing for the well ensures the integrity of the channel through which the water is transported from the underground mineral resources.Moreover, integrity should be provided throughout the entire period of operation, it means that the pipe must not succumb to corrosion and be resistant to dynamic loads at the casing.At the present time, as the casing used steel, asbestos cement and plastic pipes.
use of steel pipes excellent solution for intensive and very important projects, where the depth of the well is large, and complex geological conditions.Of course, the greater the drilling depth, respectively, increases and the wall thickness of the pipe.
Pipes of polymer often used in the terrain with simple geological conditions for drilling shallow generation.Plastic pipe can be used for well casing up to 10 m, corrosion resistance, they provide excellent, and the project will not require significant financial investments.
As for asbestos-cement pipes, they have a number of positive characteristics: the well will not corrode, and "to grow", and their price is very attractive.But there are specific restrictions - is a brittle material which can not withstand excessive hydrostatic pressure, so these pipes should be equipped with only shallow wells.
important: saving is irrelevant here because the additional cost of re-drilling are not wanted.
equipment for arranging the source ↑
long and narrow hole in the ground it is not an independent source of water supply.In order to keep the water became drinkable, well to be undeveloped.Provides for such equipment for wells:
- caisson - is needed to maintain the water source, it protects pipes from freezing, besides a kind of tank installation;
- headroom for the well - cast iron or plastic construction to prevent ingress of contaminants into the well through the mouth;
- pump - pumps water;
- accumulator - smoothing hammer and pressure maintenance system.
well completion process is important because the quality of the selected equipment and competent installation depends on its functionality.
How well is being drilled with his own hands ↑
Artesian water is certainly very good, but if there are no funds for its equipment well to receive it, you can use the money to make a profitable option and drilling their own hands.The thing is though difficult, but doable.
well design determined by the number of casing strings, lowered down by the size (length and diameter) and intervals of cementing space.
So well with their hands begins with the digging of the pit - the size of 1.5 to 1.5, the depth of about 2 meters.This step is necessary to prevent the shedding of the top layer of the earth (precarious).The walls of the pit are edged boards.
next step - preparing the rig and speakers.The most common uses of the derrick tripod.It is made of logs (15-20 cm diameter), which is secured between a winch.Drilling
column - six or more rods, which extend to each other by transition joints, the result that it has the form of a single pipe.The column ends sink to the bottom hole tool - drill head, the form of which depends on the type of soil.As the drill bit for excavating generation may be needed:
- drill-spoon is used for connected clayey soils (sandy loam, clay loam).For one it is a notch deeper 30-40 cm;
- drill - bit for solid ground;
- bailer - to extract water-saturated sand, gravel, pebbles, gravel with sand filling, loose drill cuttings.It is simple, pneumatic, piston, clamshell.
Then you need to connect the first drill rod with a rope thrown over the winch and attach to sink to the bottom hole end of the drill rod head.Stange head should be loaded on the location of intended drilling.As the penetration rod is attached to the first two, then successively the other.Depending on the soil at the bottom will need to be changed during drilling drill bit.
Important: on the boom before drilling is necessary to make a mark at the level of 60 cm. In achieving this marks the drilling tool is lifted and cleaned.
Drilling should be carried by two people, so the work will be faster and more comfortable.Buryat until the impermeable layer.The well is then thoroughly cleaned Bailer.
then lowered to the bottom of the well filter the remaining space is filled with coarse sand, small gravel.You can then proceed to the beautification shufra under the caisson and installation of the electric pump and pump string.
Well, in the final stage, you can express their imagination and build a wooden shed or put a frame with fine painted lid.There are no restrictions, as well should not only function well, but also to have aesthetic appearance.
wishing to competently build an independent source of water will help information video: