Some houses remain inviolate for centuries.The Lives of Others is less than a decade.There are times when demolition begins even before construction is completed.The main reason for this difference, as a rule, is the quality of the foundation.What to do if the building is already built, and eventually became the first visible signs of destruction of its base?Repair of the foundation brick house can be done on their own.For this purpose initially necessary to determine the reasons that caused this destruction.
main causes of the destruction of the base ↑
Among the reasons for the destruction of the basement of a brick house are three basic - human activity, the shortcomings in
last factor is manifested mainly seasonal frost heave under which the building can climb in the winter and fall in the warm season.And if the first and the second factor can be avoided, with the third, in any case, have to be considered, particularly when it comes to the pier foundation.
If significant temperature changes, which are characteristic to our latitudes, as a consequence of swelling soils are cases when the outer foundation for the season rises to 10 cm, while the interior remains in place.
But much worse for buildings with any kind of foundation - building subsidence in the ground under its own weight.
first signs of the destruction of the foundation ↑
clear indication that the foundation is something wrong, are the cracks and depressions at the base.
During shrinkage foundation can give a crack that will not progress and will require only minor repairs.It's enough to stick a paper tape across the crack and watch its entirety within 10 days.If after this time the tape will be integrated in the crack enough to shove the broken bricks and concreted.Otherwise, it will become clear that the foundation will continue to resist the destruction, but because you need to come to grips with its restoration.
foundation repair their own hands can only be made for the tape and columnar (pile) types.Repair of concrete and concrete structures require specific knowledge and skills, as well as the presence of a special expensive construction equipment, and therefore to make it on their own are unlikely to be possible.
only can resort to anything in this case - it was his gain.Schemes with the explanations given below:
Repair foundation through strengthened postelistogo stone ↑
basis of each foundation is postelisty stone.It was with him and begins planting and columnar, and strip foundation.With this type of fracture as quickly as possible try to stop settling.For this paper are exhibited for cracks or plaster beacons in the form of tapes and indicate the date of their installation.With fast shrinking beacon burst within a few days.
next step - digging holes inclined (35 °) near the pier foundation or tape up to a depth of laying postelistogo stone.After that you want to insert into the pit asbestos cement or metal pipe with a diameter of 15-20 cm and pour it through a thin cement or concrete solution until the soil is saturated with them completely.After this procedure, you must stop any work for one to two hours and watch whether the soil to absorb excess solution.In the case of withdrawal of the solution into the ground, filling the pit resumed in a few days.
As a rule, for complete saturation of the soil solution necessary to repeat the procedure two or three times.Two days later, after the final stage of filling in the cracks again established beacons.In the case of movement, it is necessary once again to continue filling the soil solution.
If the situation has changed slightly lighthouses proceed to the next stage of strengthening the foundation.Along the strip foundation or columnar foundation piles perimeter should dig a ditch width of 20-35 cm. At the bottom and on the outer edge of the ditch is placed in a formwork board.In the brick or stone foundation are driven metal studs, to which is attached a metal grid.It turns out a kind of armature, which is filled with a solution of concrete filled with fine crushed stone and gravel.This design will help significantly enhance the carrying capacity of the corner of the house and distribute its load horizontally and thereby stop the subsidence.
This way of further strengthening is more suitable for columnar foundations.Thus consolidating the two vertical piles, under them you can lay a wooden or reinforced concrete pile in a horizontal position, which will help to increase the carrying capacity of this part of the basement is still a factor of 2-3.
How to restore a cracked foundation ↑
In case of cracks in the plinth of the walls and the skew of one or more supporting structures, it is first necessary to determine the nature of the destruction of the foundation, and choose the best way to strengthen it.
If indestructible foundation around the perimeter, due to changes in load, or high humidity, the perimeter tape or columnar foundation piles must dig a trench.
Then, thoroughly clean the surface of the old plaster and mud, and at a certain distance from the wall to fix the metal mesh with anchors, previously driven into the base and foundation.It concreted structure, carefully ramming in layers.
foundations made of rubble masonry, reinforced concrete, rubble concrete and soil-concrete using concrete reinforcing cage broadened.Its thoroughly by means of anchoring tie through the old masonry with the expectation that new sections of the foundation will be made to work together with the old part.
Sometimes you have to increase the load-bearing capacity of the foundation in his weak areas.To do this, along those parts of the foundation laid a new foundation.In the future, it will take some of the load from the old foundation thanks to anchors that pass through and are attached to the metal and concrete piles passing through the basement of the building.
principle of replacement parts foundation ↑
In cases where the foundation comes completely useless, had to make its replacement by a completely new.To do this, completely unload the old foundation and maintain the stability of the house.There are several ways to do this.You can do this by using temporary wooden "chairs", setting them perpendicular to the sleepers of the foundation.The structure can be fixed also with stone pillars, which temporarily administered by the wall.They help to transfer the load from the ceiling to the ground.You can also apply braces.They support the plinth wall and transfer the load from her to the ground at an angle.
Before you begin to replace the foundation, wall, you need to install beacons to notice possible deformation caused by the repair work.Only then can you begin excavation.The foundation should be laid out portions no longer than two meters.
During deepening of the foundation, the walls need to be strengthened with the help of braces.After this break in the foundation and clean land for them from the ground.The walls of the recess by means of reinforcing the boards with spacers in the form of the formwork and start preparing the foundation of a new foundation.Sole old masonry is cleaned of rubble and soil.The dilapidated places her break.Old and new brickwork "cross-linked" with a hard cement mortar and rubble.
only after the liner foundation in one area, you can move on to the next.If you want to work on the device foundation can be carried out simultaneously in several areas.It may be done in cases where the distance between the working areas is not less than 5-6 m.
At the end a little bit about what you need to think first ↑
In some cases it happens that all the repairs that were carried out in order tostrengthening the foundation, do not lead to the desired result.On the walls all as cracks occur, the basement flooded with water and the structure sags in the old or new places.In this case you should decide to change the design of the foundation, which drags along the reconstruction of walls, ceilings, etc.
such undesirable effects can be avoided if you resort to professional advice before using the product.Repairs can also hold their own.And here is some advice from the pros yet nobody has ever turned out to be superfluous.