construction of any house begins with the laying of the foundation.It is important to choose the type of foundation, taking into account the density of the soil, the degree of freezing and the proximity of groundwater.The most common in our climatic conditions foundations - reinforced concrete or precast concrete.Even if construction is under way on the heaving soils it is sufficient to calculate the width of the trench and provide backfill of nepuchinistogo grunta.Pomnite that the decision on the choice of the type of foundation should take an experienced architect who can take into account all the characteristics of soil and climate, as well as calculate the design load.
Features markup trench ↑
When the calculations are ready and it is time to start the action, you first need to correctly producethe layout of the site.Places, which will host the trench for the foundation is most convenient to
- Withpegs and strong thread mark the perimeter of the base, measuring out a long distance with a tape measure.If your available no roulette desired length, use the same thread.It is important that the thread is not stretched, or errors in the markup can not be avoided.
- After marking again vymeryat lengths of the sides - parallel sides must be identical.Be sure to measure diagonally - they must be equal.Otherwise, your foundation will have indirect angles.
- width of the trench should be at 40-60 cm more than the width of the foundation of the project.More 20-30 cm on each side is needed to install the formwork and construction of protective drainage backfill.By the depth of the foundation specified in the project, you must add 20 cm for drainage "cushion" of crushed stone and sand.If done correctly, you can start digging trenches.
dig a trench under the reinforced concrete foundation as you can with an excavator, or manually.
Of course, the use of technology will speed up the process, but also "handmade" has its advantages:
- smaller volume of dredged material
- more evenly trench walls ;
- Savings concrete (by pouring without formwork) - manually adjust the width of the trench is easier and, therefore, the amount of concrete used.
At a distance of about 30 cm from the bottom of the trench is necessary to make a small extension - "heel."This will increase the area of support and distribute the load.At the bottom of the trench is placed a layer of sand or fine gravel and abundantly watered for the shrinkage.
precast concrete foundation ↑
If your home project provided precast concrete foundation, it is possible to start laying.Unfortunately, we can not do without the use of load-lifting machines (crane).The optimal number of workers in this case, 4 people: the crane operator, worker and two installer.
work starts from the corner of the building."Bed" spread from the solution immediately prior to installation of each unit using a crane to stack blocks and check the correctness of its position along the axes by means of the level and plumb.Then stack the next block.Permissible vertical clearance between the blocks - 15 mm.After installation, it is poured with concrete blocks, and sometimes in order to improve waterproofing pre zakonopachivayut.
Precast concrete foundations in low-rise buildings are used infrequently.The fact that a relatively small load on the foundation, the bearing capacity of blocks used only 10-15%, but the value of the precast foundation Bookmarks significantly higher than the price of the tape casting.
belt type monolithic foundation ↑
If the project provides a monolithic reinforced concrete strip foundation, the device should start with the reinforcing cage.
primarily produce so-called "ring" of reinforcement thickness 8mm.To do this, a small piece of sill need to rigidly fix and make its two edges of the groove (Bulgarian).In these grooves insert fittings 8mm thick, the other end to put on large-diameter pipes and get some sort of lever.In this way, you can quite easily produce identical rectangles.This will be our "ring".
Ready rings associate knitting with wire and start manufacturing the frame.
For this 4 piece of rebar, a thickness of 12 mm and a length equal to the length of the house, using binding wire passes through the "ring" and tied to the corners.Fifth tie rod in the middle of the upper face of the rectangle.
Note that if you connect multiple pieces of reinforcement for desired length, the overlap should be at least 1 m.
Technology fill strip foundation in the wooden formwork with reinforcement will submit a video.
thereby preparing the framework for the entire basement, lower it into the trench, laying the bricks at a distance of about 10 cm from the bottom, and sealed at the corners of binding wire.Then driven into the wall of the trench pins and tie him to the cage.
Important!The framework must be laid strictly on the level.
Around the same principle made another foundation - a monolithic concrete slab, but in this case, filling the pit is located in the entire area of the house.This often serves as the foundation of the basement floor.
As you can see, to build a foundation for a house or garage with his hands is not so difficult, most importantly the desire to make some effort and all the necessary work.