basis of any building - the foundation on which depends the strength and reliability of the design.That is why the choice of the base for the future of the house must be approached with great care.One of the most popular types is considered to be the base pier foundation, which has found wide application in the construction of the country.The grounds have a view on the pillars of support, arranged by columns and walls.Purpose of the foundation is to overlap core pillars of concrete or rubble concrete beams on which the tower wall.To avoid crashes and deformations of beams, a foundation set slag sand or a pillow.Its width should exceed the width of the base.It should also worry about waterproofing.Racks to the foundation of this type of preferred rectangular or ravnostupenchatoy form.
Many are convinced that the columnar and support-pier foundation - different concepts that have little in common.This is not true.The first as well as second, erected a wooden houses without basements.It is the most convenient and easy to install form of bases, which are often used in the construction of log houses, huts, baths.
Such a framework on consumption of building materials and labor force twice as economical tape.Often during the construction of supporting-pier foundation concrete blocks ready to use.The support consists of 4 blocks of 200h200h400 mm.The number of these "cabinets" depends on the size of the house.
Preconditions and restrictions for the use of columnar foundation ↑
There are a number of conditions, when the use of the foundation on the pillars not only appropriate, but also fully justified:
- when the ground during the operation of the structure provides the deposition of the columnar base (at the same pressure pillarson the ground) is somewhat less tape;
- for buildings without basements with shields and light wood frame walls;
- under the brick walls that require deep foundations (up to 2 meters, that is 25 cm below the freezing depth of soil);
- when necessary to eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the basis of radiation frost, because pier foundation is exposed to this phenomenon to a lesser extent.
There are a few moments when the pier foundation is not recommended:
- in weak and horizontally moving soil, because the foundation for the different pillars of insufficient stability;
- on soft soils (clay, water saturated, rock subsidence), the construction of houses with massive heavy walls (brick and concrete blocks more than 510 mm thick);
- it is not necessary to arrange pier foundation in places with a height difference (2.0 m or more).
What is the calculation of the columnar foundation ↑
At design houses the most important task is to calculate the pier foundation.The goal - definition of load that will impact on the soil and the foundation, and the identification of the reference area basis.
total load - it is a constant pressure (the house) and time (wind, snow).To find out the load on the foundation, it should consider the weight of the house with the operational additions in the form of furniture, technical equipment, the people living in it.
When calculating the pier foundation is determined by the area and severity of support.The results are extremely important to understand whether the ground is able to support the weight of the house and basement.
To calculate the needed data:
- number of floors in the building;
- the height of the building;
- total length jumper P1 P2;
- the size of the base;
- the thickness of the cap;
- soil density;
- the depth of laying the foundation;
- the type of soil;
- material for the walls and base;
- kind of roof;
- type ceilings.
materials pier foundation ↑
columnar foundation may be made of wood, brick, concrete.
To bookmark a wooden base used bottom of the barrel - butt.Before installing the support treated with an antiseptic solution and wrapped in bitumen.These activities prevent rotting wood and prolong life.For example, a bed of pine (after processing) will last about 15 years, in oak - 30. For comparison, untreated poles will serve faithfully for 7 and 15 years, respectively.
foundation of brick will last 70 to 100 years depending on the soil structure, masonry and material quality.
Important!If you want to make the foundation of brick, masonry skills but do not have, it is better to entrust this business to professionals, because the poor performance of the work leads to the rapid destruction of the supports.
foundation concrete has high strength and thus a long service life - 150 years.
pier foundation How to make your own hands ↑
device base on poles at the same time combines the simplicity and elegance.This type of framework is presented in the form of low pillars - towers, which are located at the points of greatest stress.These points are the corners of the structure, the joints and the external load-bearing walls.On top of the poles grillage set - plate, evenly distributes the load for construction poles.This approach is somewhat similar to the use of piles.
pier foundation can be made of different materials: concrete, stone, rubble concrete, brick, but the most common is a reinforced concrete foundation, which is practical and easy to tab.
consider phased device pier foundation in the most sought after version (reinforced concrete).The sequence of work is:
1. Cleaning construction site.Holding, depending on soil type, the appropriate training.At high load-bearing capacity of soil is necessary to align the site with the help of special equipment.If the ground is not reliably call (sandy loam, clay plastic, quicksand) require replacement primer, namely, excavation and backfilling of artificial soil in it.
2. The drawing of the structure is transferred to the area, which are mounted rack castoffs, hammered stakes and strings thread - the axis marked on charts.
3. Held strictly digging holes along the axes.If they are more than a meter deep, to avoid shedding need to use the slopes.At the bottom is placed a large sand and gravel.
4. Set formwork, which will serve as a form for pouring concrete.In some cases, permitting the soil, it can be dispensed with.
5. Installation fittings - steel rods, captured the contour of the clamp with a cross section not less than 12 cm.
6. Pouring concrete in layers of 30 cm.
7. At the top of the pillarsset team or monolithic edge beam - raft foundation.As a result, we obtain the circuit, which is very similar to a strip foundation has just raised on pillars.
8. Between the pillars erected boundary wall, preventing the penetration of dust and moisture into the base of the structure from the outside.
9. Produced by basement waterproofing bitumen layer applied on top of the pillars.
most common mistakes when placing ↑
pier foundation Laying his hands, developers often make mistakes that lead to damage to the base and walls of the house.Here are the most common ones:
- Uneven subsidence of the foundation.This may occur due to an incorrect calculation of the depth of bookmarks, different size reference recessed or uneven load on the support base.To eliminate this phenomenon should produce the most accurate estimates of planned load.
- use of low quality materials: sand with an admixture of clay or cement is not that brand.Note that the long-term storage quality of the cement is decreased by 30% or even 50%.
- Incorrect evaluation bearing properties of the primer.To avoid this, experts will competently executed project.
little useful information ↑
Foundation works are carried out as quickly as possible and in the dry period.The soil should be dry, in contact with water in the trench, it must be removed and compacted soil.It is allowed to seal gravel, slag or small stones.
With the construction pier foundation under each of the pillars removed a layer of fertile soil.Poles installed on carefully compacted soil.If heaving soil structure, the base of the column to be produced from the pillow Gravel (150 mm).The height of the supporting pillars above the ground shall be not less than 100 mm.
pier foundation - the perfect choice for a reliable foundation.Availability, cost, ease of laying - qualities that led to the popularity of this type of foundation.The design, in spite of the ease out very strong and will last for years.