Today slab foundation can rightly be called the most common basis for buildings.This is easily explained.Thanks to a solid one-piece design made under the entire area of the building, he was not afraid of the ground motion, becauseplate moves with the house.That is why the second name of such a framework - a monolithic floating foundation.
Background pouring the foundation monolithic plate ↑
The base of the plates - the best way out of the difficult situation the construction of structures on problem soils such as subsidence or heaving rocks.Construction of the foundation slab is shown with the prevalence in the area of moist ground with enhanced levels of standing groundwater.MDF is considered an ideal base to create waterproof protection basements and cellars.
slab foundation is required:
- when soils with low bearing capacity (quicksand, water-saturated sands, bulk soils), and a large load on the foundation of the house;
- if you want to reduce the possibility of non-uniform compression of the soil and rainfall structure;
- the presence at the construction site of ground water pressure.
schematic arrangement of the foundation slab ↑
Visually, the foundation of the plates is a solid or latticed concrete slab penetrated fitting.The thickness may be different, depending on the calculation.
slab foundation consists of the following components:
- drainage cushions;
- waterproofing.It is recommended to arrange not only the final screed, but also on top of the drain cushion;
- reinforcing mesh;
- concrete.Minimum value - mark M15 and frost F 75.
These components may vary depending on the type of soil and climate.For example, if the climate is close to the average, the heater can only be used on the sides of the base.
If the construction takes place on the loose soils, it is necessary to increase the reliability of the foundation, supplementing it with reinforcing ribs.
for light constructions, such as a garage, you can use cost-effective option - to build a foundation of gratings with a mesh of 1.5 x 1.5 m.
It is necessary to know!
thickness depends on the weight of the foundation of the building.For reference: the thickness of the base of a small house usually does not exceed 25-50 cm.
Benefits slab foundation over other ↑
1. Low cost and ease of manufacture and assembly.
2. Good bearing capacity, due to a large area of contact with the ground.
3. Overall, not subject to local deformation, the platform ensures the integrity of the walls of the house.In the cold period of the construction does not form vgibov and failures, asit is raised and lowered evenly.This is a valuable feature because the foundation is a rigid platform on which there are walls and columns.
4. Ability to use the plate as a "draft" floor basement.In this situation, you can not apply on the ground floor of accessories for ceiling, which saves a lot of money.
5. Possibility of the construction of the foundation slabs in difficult terrain, avoiding digging.This will reduce costly and time-consuming work in conditions of high water table, frozen soil itp
How to make a slab foundation with his hands ↑
Before manufacturing base for home need to calculate the slab foundation.At this stage, many developers who want to complete the entire scope of work on their own, permit fatal mistakes.
This is important!
If you do not have construction education, calculate correctly unlikely becausemust take into account many factors: the possible roll, deformation, shrinkage, load distribution on the entire surface of the plate, and others. Therefore it is better to turn to professional designers who will do everything quickly and efficiently.
slab foundation: technology manufacturing step
1. Marking the construction site and the removal of soil.
2. Establishment of geotextile flooring to create a barrier that prevents transfer of sand to clay.
3. Forming sand cushion, which consists in backfilling the site with a mixture of gravel and sand, tamping manually or by using compactors.Sand should be ramming in layers of 10 cm.
4. Laying of communications.
5. Production of concrete preparation - screed cast cement (M-100).The thickness of the screed - 10 cm. In the resulting concrete slab laid waterproofing materials, their joints are welded propane torch or blowtorch.The size of the waterproofing must be greater than the size of the future of the foundation, which will easily wrap up the edge of the deck.
6. On top of the waterproofing layer is laid insulation of extruded polystyrene.Stage is not mandatory, but in the future, providing a warm floor basement, will save on heating homes.
7. In the resulting "sandwich" mounted fittings.The frame consists of two nets (bars 12-16 mm) size cells 20h20-30-30 cm. The first grid is mounted in the bottom part of the foundation (not more than 5 cm from the styrofoam) and the second - in the upper (lower than the upper plane of the base on5 cm).
8. Along the perimeter of the plate fits thoroughly fixed formwork.Produced with the pouring of concrete compacted by hand or using vibrators.The concrete surface is leveled and smoothed.
9. Concrete slab covered with foil and allowed to stand for 4 weeks.In the first week should be the foundation of every day to moisturize water.
10. After fixing concrete, supply side waterproofing rolled up and soldered to the ends of the foundation.
After a strong foundation is ready, you can proceed to further work on the construction of their dream home - cozy, beautiful and safe.Remember, proper organization of the process of the construction of the base of the building - a true guarantee of stability even in the most "capricious" ground.