In a small area or a country house duplex apartment beautiful and compact spiral staircases are often the only means of movement of people between floors.But in a spacious house neat spiral staircase with his own hands will be an alternative main entrance bridge connecting different floors of accommodation with each other, as well as located in the basement or the attic of the building.It loses some in the comfort of a direct stairway, but it takes much less precious useful space for its construction requires less materials, but before you do yourself a spiral staircase, you must understand the structure of a few rules of these structures.
types and designs of spiral staircases ↑
In terms of visual appeal is unlikely syschetsya more striking element of the interior than the spiral staircases: photo biz
But despite such diverse design spiral staircases, structurally can be divided into four main types:
- spiral staircase, wedge-shaped stage that relies wideend on the surrounding walls and narrow - on the central supporting column or a pillar of stone, wood or thickened fragments stages.By the walls of the stage are fixed mostly on rails, but there are variations on the spiral bowstrings or kosour.
- detached, distant from the walls of the spiral staircase with cantilevered reinforced monolithic central support column steps.
- spiral staircase design with no central support column.Support for steps are spirally curved bowstring or stringers, which fades into the support rail.It's a beautiful, elegant, but also the most difficult to manufacture spiral staircase design, requires experience and professionalism of the master.
- spiral staircase with a central support rod, as a rule, which is a thick-walled steel or asbestos cement pipe with a diameter of 50 mm.This is the traditional, most common staircase design, simple to manufacture and reliable in operation.After installation of the central rack and stairs can be painted or finished in wood, ceramic and so on. D.
Withtaking into account the characteristics of manufacture and installation of metal or wood spiral staircase with his hands - the best option for the skilled homeowner seeking unaided equip their homes.At specialized sites of the Internet you can find ready-made projects spiral staircase that it is possible to use, making the necessary calculations to bind to its specific design of the room.
How not to miscalculate the size of the design?↑
From experience we know that the most convenient-to-use spiral staircases with a span of not less than 800-900 mm.That is, the diameter of the whole ladder structure must be at least 2000 - 2200 mm, taking into account the diameter of the central rack and ladder width opening in the intermediate floor, which should be free to enter a staircase and its railings with handrails.In terms of the helical staircase structure may be circular, polygonal, oval or even rectangular.
in homes with low traffic volume diameter of the auxiliary winding stairs in the basement or the attic is quite admissible within 1400-1500 mm and a width of tread550-600 mm.Production of spiral staircase with a diameter of more than 3,000 mm, not appropriate: with the appropriate size of the opening is better to install a more comfortable and safe stairway.
design staircase with steps fixed to the central support of the least costly and the device is a spiral staircase with steps to mount the spiral curved bent-glued bowstring difficult to implement and will cost considerably more expensive.
How to calculate the structure and make it ergonomic?↑
If the spiral staircase will be used as the core, its width span of less than 800 mm is undesirable because it does not allow to separate the two going to meet each other people.When calculating the size and number of winders uses the same principles as in similar calculations for straight stairway:
- depth level in the middle line - not less than 200 mm;
- depth level at a distance of 150 mm from the support column - not less than 100 mm;
- depth level in the widest part at the edge of the stairs - not more than 400 mm;
- diameter ladder - 1300 - 3300 mm;
- passage diameter of the inner edge of the railing - 1200-3200 mm;
- width of the march - 530 - 1430 mm;
- diameter opening in the ceiling - 1300 - 3300 mm.
important design parameters in the design of the spiral staircase is comfortable forman lifting height.The calculations for the ladder height of 3000 mm and a width of 800 mm march.
Staircase diameter equal to twice the width of the march, plus the diameter of the support column (200 mm):
D = 800 x 2 + 200 = 1800 mm
radius lift equals the sum of half the width of the stairway and the range of support:
Rn = 400 +100= 500 mm
Using the formula of the circumference of a school course of geometry and the average of the tread depth of 200 mm, namely dividing the length of the path of movement in the depth of the tread, calculate the number of steps in one turn of the staircase structure:
L = 2 πr: 200 = 2 x 3.14 x 500 200 = 17,2
Rounding received value, determine that one turn of the spiral staircases should consist of 17 stages.In most cases, the ladder consists of one coil, but may contain several.
ergonomic step height is calculated in such a way that the total height of the helix coil provides a convenient and safe movement of a tall man.To calculate the value to the growth of 180 cm to 20 cm add the operational and divide by the number of steps in one pass.Estimated height level is obtained:
h = 2000: 17 = 120 mm
Determine the required number of steps for the spiral staircase height 3000 mm:
n = 3000: 120 = 25
Thus, for convenient transportation spiral staircase height of 3000mm and a width of 800 mm march should comprise 25 stages height of 120 mm.
few useful rules that make a spiral staircase durable, safe and comfortable:
- exception of construction spiral staircase risers increases its safety, as foot rests firmly on the step and not slide off it, even in the narrow part.
- At the height of the passage of not less than 2000 mm provides a comfortable and safe movement of even a very tall man.
- For accommodation and fixed pedestal spiral staircase should choose a place that can withstand the weight of the structure and at least two or three people.
- placement stages overlap of a few centimeters to one another for comfort of movement, and further strengthens the entire structure by installing the bracket between the front and rear edges of the widened portion of two adjacent stages.
Technological features self-assembly ↑
Armed calculations, you can buy in a store blank steps in standard sizes of 400 x 800 mm or 300 x 1100 mm and 40 mm thick, cut out one wedge-shaped stage in accordance with the project, and attempting to install the stairs.First, you need to install and hard to fix the support leg, and then attaching the stage.
For those who do not trust produced their own estimates, there is a more convenient option - prefabricated spiral staircases from domestic or foreign producers, which are easily assembled by the manufacturer's instructions, as shown in the video clip: