The fastest way to the construction of the foundations of the building - the foundation of the units.This method although it has some flaws, yet far more beneficial in terms of saving time than, for example, the construction of a monolithic foundation.Of course, any builder will tell you that work with solid, smooth surface is much more convenient, but to the concrete has reached the desired condition, will have to wait almost a month, which is not profitable either construction workers or customers.But block foundation is much easier life, and makes it easy to fit into an already tight schedule of our short spring or autumn.
first stage - the choice of concrete products ↑
Before the construction of the foundation, choose high-quality concrete blocks, because it will depend onthe strength of the whole structure of the building.
- The first (and most important) selection criteria - a load limit, which will be provided on the basis of the future building.The indicator for each product subject to the production process at the plant, has its own figures.
- draw attention to the figure frost blocks.The higher it is, the more able to withstand the rigors of your foundation.
- and look for the presence of concrete crushed granite, which increases the resistance to the basics of home acidic soil.
- Decide on the size of the blocks.So, for the construction of small objects (cottage, garage, sauna) using samples of lightweight concrete blocks, and for the more massive buildings is better to use large items, which will run much faster.
Classification of concrete blocks ↑
If you are wondering how to make the foundation of the blocks, then you should know and that these same units are of two types: pillow and wall.
first cross-sectional form a trapezoid, which helps to increase their supporting decent area.These blocks are most commonly used for laying the foundation of the bottom row, which will ensure maximum strength and stability of the whole structure.A second quadrilateral are shaped and may have lateral cutouts for denser docking with each other.Their mission - the formation of underground and surface part of the foundations of the future building.
Thus, the construction of the foundation blocks of the means itself and the use of wall and concrete blocks pillow.But there is one nuance that is worth considering in order to facilitate his further work - it is desirable that the blocks have technological holes and slots for the installation of communications, otherwise you have to own their hollow in the concrete, which is very problematic.
There are three types of blocks:
- FGF - concrete blocks U-shaped
- FB - blocks with cut-outs for utilities
- FBS - whole blocks without holes.
They are heavy, so their transportation and installation will require the involvement of lifting equipment that can cause serious costs.But the output is still there - you can build the foundation blocks of dimensions 20 * 20 * 40 cm, which are designed specifically for the construction of small buildings.Such articles are made from concrete and made of lightweight materials, for example, of expanded clay.This "easy" base without any problems can withstand the weight of a bath or a single car garage, as well as provide structural strength and at the same time its insulation.In addition, blocks of expanded clay are much cheaper than other counterparts, but there is one thing that it is necessary to take into account when buying products - this is their density, which should have a ratio of not less than 1500 - 1800 kg / cubic meter.Unfortunately, this figure check "by eye" is impossible, so the only advice that in this case you can give to buy units only in place and tested by a reliable manufacturer.
second phase - counting soil ↑
At this stage of construction it is necessary to partition the soil: to outline the boundaries of the future building and foundation.Do it best with metal pegs, ropes and building meters.
Important: if the markup is worth considering that the width of the foundation should be greater than the width of the wall.
After the work is finished on the markup, you can start preparing the ground for the construction of the foundation, and for different types of foundations for the future homes or other structures carry out various earthworks.Thus, need for columnar foundations perimeter markings and dig a pit inside depth of about half to two meters, and for a belt-type topsoil is removed and the trench is dug, which should be greater for blocks of several centimeters.
Important: The depth of the trench depends on the type of soil: sandstones with depth aquifer 2 meters will be enough to dig a trench depth of 30-40 cm, and in other caseshave deepened at a decent distance.
third phase - construction ↑
If the first two steps are of a preparatory nature, the third stage - the stage of the main building, to which should be taken very seriously.
building technology foundation structure of the blocks ↑
technique erecting the foundations of any type of blocks is approximately the same.
- All elements of the foundation are fastened together conventional cement mortar, which is prepared immediately before laying.During the work on the construction of the foundation added to a solution of water or cement can not be, since the excess of either can weaken contact.
- blocks stacked on top of each other similar to the brickwork.The minimum permitted deviation from the horizontal rows of block no more than 15 mm per 10 meters of masonry.
- All joints and seams should be filled with a solution to the maximum, to leave no gaps and holes.
columnar type of foundation for the house ↑
This type of foundation can be attributed to the cheapest options for the construction of the foundations of the future building.It is a certain amount of support pedestals, dug deep into the ground.These tables have a marking on the perimeter and inside.Pier foundation is used for light constructions such as wooden bathhouses, garages and cottages.Incidentally, it is being built quickly and simply (in a day you can manage to finish all the work related to the foundation).
Along the perimeter of the future structure of the prepared holes mounted pedestals height of not less than 40 centimeters.Number of thumbs depends on the size and weight of the building.But before you do the installation of concrete pillars, you must first prepare well.To do this, we rammed the bottom suitable for this instrument (you can even take the usual long stick), then fall asleep rubble (approximately 10-12 cm) and sand (5-7 cm).Aligns the surface of the sand and set the first row of blocks, securing them with cement mortar.
Build a foundation with his hands out of the blocks is quite simple, but there is a caveat that it is imperative to take into account.The fact that the slightest inaccuracy or mistake can cause distortions, which then will fix problematic (cement has already hardened), so that during the construction of pier foundation you need to carefully monitor the level of cabinets using a rope stretched between the supports.
Strip foundation of the blocks ↑
Strip foundation for the house of the units ideal for the construction of buildings of brick or cinder block.It is a concrete ribbon located under all structural units.
And in the first and in the second case for the construction of the foundation is best to use blocks of expanded clay, because they are much easier (about 30 kg) than conventional concrete, and their size allows you to work without much stress and difficulties.
Strip foundation of the foundation blocks erected on a scheme similar to the scheme of construction pier foundation, just filter "cushion" of rubble and sand is placed in the trench.To use the lower number of pillow blocks, and you need to start laying them at the corners and intersections of walls of the future.By installing corner pieces, you should use the level to check the correct installation and only then you can start laying the future, focusing on the rope which is stretched between the first blocks.After finishing work on the installation of the bottom row, you need to put a layer of waterproofing, which will prevent the penetration of moisture to the foundation.Next
with metal pins to mark places for Lighthouse wall elements of the second row, covers the lower range of cement mortar and set the next row of blocks.
video shows the sequence of work in the construction of the formwork of foam concrete blocks, followed by reinforcement and grouting.
Disadvantages of foundations made of foam concrete elements ↑
Of course, the device of the foundation blocks have many advantages, among which in the first place, of course, the speed of installation.But this advantage is also a disadvantage, and because the cost of precast foundation nearly 30% higher than monolithic.In addition, the issue price may rise by 20-25%, if you choose to build large blocks, transportation and installation of which requires additional costs.
Another fat minus - intermediate the seams, which may let moisture or rot.Prevent sad outcome is possible only with careful sealing.
Now you know how to build the foundation of the blocks, you know the nuances of this process and its shortcomings, it remains only to start.Good luck!