treatment of domestic sewage in a country house is a must event at their removal.At the present time, when the issue of ecology as relevant as ever, we must remember that discharge untreated waste water into the ground is prohibited.It is in this connection after the treatment facilities in suburban homes should be provided facilities underground filtration.For the treatment of domestic sewage, as a rule, different septic tanks, after which - according to the current sanitary standards - a well established filter, sand and gravel filters, underground field filtration or filter trenches.
The choice of construction depends on:
- soil type;
- depth of groundwater;
- presence of the aquifer and other factors.
worth noting that for the biological wastewater treatment is currently the most commonly used filter wells.
What is the filter well?↑
filter well is a special structure, the main purpose of which is the biological treatment of waste water at the local sewage system.The need for a device of this treatment plant is often due to the inability to discharge waste water into any body of water through the drainage system.
Typically, in such cases, the house is too far from the pond or land is characterized by lack of bias.It therefore becomes necessary to discharge waste water into the soil.
Experts note that the well screen can act as an independent drainage facilities, or as an additional tool for water.In the first case the well is installed on the site, if the volume of water does not exceed 1 m3 per day.In the latter case the well is used for the purification of waste water before taking them into the soil.
Where to build a well for wastewater treatment?↑
for the well filter device must be carefully collect information on the ground.The fact that the shafts can hold only the primers which are suitable for filtration.These include peat, sandy and sandy loam soils with low content of clay particles.As for the clay and loam with a low coefficient of filtration, the unit of data structures in their pointless, since the filtration wells can not be used effectively.
Do not install wells for the biological treatment of wastewater in the fractured rocks due to the fact that in this case there is no water filtration.However, in the absence of an organized flow contaminated water can get into drinking water sources.Because in areas with soils have low filtration properties apply other methods of wastewater treatment.
directly dependent on the state of the soil is well filtration area.For sandy soil, it can reach 3 m 2, and for sandy loam - 1,5 m2.Filtration area in turn determines the period of operation of the well, the larger it is, the more the life of the filter well.
Efficient operation of the filter well is achieved when a competent unit, taking into account the depth of the water table.Normal operation of the filter is provided by the well when the level of groundwater is below its filter bed of about 0.5 m. In this case the base of the drainage system must be above the groundwater level at 1 m. When on land, where is the country house,a sufficiently high level of groundwater from wells for filtering devices have to give.
Do not forget about the depth of frost penetration.The filter should be placed well below the frost line, which depends on the climatic conditions of a particular region of the country.So, in central Russia it is about 1.3 m above the ground.
device of the local treatment plant ↑
main elements of the well for filtration of wastewater are:
- bottom filter;
Bottom filter structure backfill ↑
Most often the bottom filter is filling the well, made of crushed stone, gravel, clinker ash, brick fragments and similar materials with them.
The diameter of the used fractions varies over a fairly wide range - 10-70 mm.This filling is most often carried out at a height of about 1 m.
is worth noting that the well cleaned from suspended particles water gets out of the septic tank through a pipe, which must be positioned slightly above the surface of the filter.Most often, this distance is 0.2 m. Place the fall of the jet on the bottom filter flap hiding a special antiseptic, to evenly distribute the waste water in the well.In addition, this measure helps to prevent the erosion of the filter filling.
walls of the well for filtration ↑
walls of the well can be made of various materials.It can be not only a special reinforced concrete rings for the filter well, but the old barrel, solid clay brick or rubble stone.
Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the walls of the well should be left or a specially punched holes.They should be uniformly distributed along the height of the bottom of the filter.As a rule, they are carried out in a checkerboard pattern and have a diameter of 4-6 cm. It is worth considering that the area of all holes should not exceed the surface of the walls of 10%.
From the outside walls of the filter domestic waste water also performed well filling the material that was used for stacking the bottom of the filter.The height of the filling must be equal to the height of the filter, and the thickness is typically 30-50 cm.
overlap and ventilation wells ↑
filter well as a septic tank, must necessarily have a vent pipe.Its installation in the overlap of the treatment plant.Thus the top of the pipe must be located above the ground at a distance of about 70 cm, moreover, it must be equipped with an element as vane.
is believed that the optimal diameter of the vent pipe is 10 cm. There is no doubt sticking above ground pipe can spoil the landscape, but to solve the problem can be easily, camouflaged beautiful trumpet creepers.
Also vent pipe is installed in the ceiling of the well hatch, the diameter of which often reaches 70 cm. Its feature is the presence of two covers.The first of them - the carrier, the second - and the weighting is below.Between the covers is necessary to leave a space, which is subsequently filled in one way or another insulating material.This can be a standard mineral wool or perlite bags with sand.
Currently filter wells for domestic wastewater seldom performed diameter of 2 m and a depth of 3 m. In the case where the area of the sewage treatment plant is too large, it is recommended to arrange on the territory of land is not a big well, and several small.This need may arise, for example, the well area 4 m2 or more with larger amounts of waste water.We should not forget the fact that the waste water must be removed from an existing source of drinking water for a distance of at least 30 m.
Thus, the filter wells are practical and functional element of the sewage from the farmhouse.Competent approach to their device will not harm the environment.