construction of the foundation for the future of the house is a very important step in the entire construction process.When planning to lay solid foundation with his hands, it is necessary in advance to carry out all the preparatory work.These include not only the registration of land ownership, but also the mandatory study of soil at the construction site.Type of foundation will be determined depending on the soil properties, the severity of the proposed buildings and facilities that are available to the developer.
solid foundation - a foundation type, optimally suited for the construction of the territoriesclose proleganiya groundwater and subsidence and heaving soils.He also serves as a concrete pad, protecting the basement and the basement and the first floor from the negative effects of moisture.
solid foundation is considered
- no damage by reacting with moisture;
- possibility to withstand heavy loads;
- speed of erection;
- low cost.
In building are two types of bookmarks solid foundations:
- belt solid foundation
- foundation monolithic slab
foundation monolithic - ready for construction ↑
for self-construction of a monolithic foundation you need to take care of the availability of tools and related construction equipment.You will need:
- few pieces bayonet or shovel;
- cord for marking;
- building level;
- ribbed rebar for reinforcement of diameter 10-14 mm;
- hook and knitted wire reinforcement;
- cement, sand and gravel;
- material for shuttering;
- carpentry tools for construction formwork;
- construction equipment.
belt type monolithic foundation construction technology ↑
Strip foundation is a closed ribbon with a greater bearing surface, which is suitable for the construction of all types of buildings - from concrete, wood, stone, brick, and the houses built on the frame-panel technology.
monolithic foundation belt type is as follows:
- to mark the site of the future construction.The width of a standard cast strip foundation is about 400 mm.Noting
- around the perimeter of the foundation of the future, must be strengthened at the corners of the valve and check the angles using the protractor, or simply measuring the diagonals.Then pull a cord around the perimeter of the markup or sturdy string.
- Trenching should start with the lowest point, except for the difference in the height of the future of the foundation.When dry, firm ground and the small size of the future house is enough to use a trench depth of 80-100 cm. In loose soil the trench should be at 10-15 cm lower than the level of soil freezing.
- Another important point is the construction of a sand "cushion", the thickness of which must be at least 30 cm. In this case, it is obligatory thorough compaction.This will evenly distribute the load and to minimize the future effects of shrinkage.
- Further dug trench installed decking, which is inside is lined with waterproofing material to avoid leakage of the cement mixture.Decking in this case must rise above the ground on 30 cm.
- reinforcement allows the foundation to give high strength, increasing resistance not only to compressive stress, but stress and tensile and flexural strength.Reinforcement is performed by separate metal rods or special steel structures.To be inside the monolith, reinforcing mesh should deviate from the surfaces of 50 mm.
- Before pouring the foundation necessary to take care of waterproofing, otherwise, because of the groundwater is possible the process of destruction of the foundation.One of the most effective methods of protection is the use of Penetron, as well as a number of other modern waterproofing materials.The use of these materials helps to make the whole array of concrete waterproof.
- Then begins the gradual process of pouring concrete compacted with each layer.For the reliability of the design is necessary to completely eliminate the presence of voids in the array.Also, it is best to pour the concrete at one time, it will avoid the joints and so-called "cold joints".
Construction monolithic foundation slab type ↑
monolithic slab foundation - the technology used in the case of unstable soils.
This foundation will serve more than one hundred years subject to thorough compliance with all building codes in the process of construction.
Technology Bookmark this foundation is the following:
- First excavated pit, the depth of which will depend on the height of the basement.The minimum depth of the pit should be at least 30 cm.
- After preparing the pit is necessary to dig trenches for laying drainage pipes, and on the bottom of the pit put a layer of sand and gravel, carefully tamped it.
- When installing formwork need to take care of its waterproofing.As the protective roofing material may be coated on top of a thick polyethylene or modern waterproofing materials.Further, the heat insulating layer is laid.
- Horizontal reinforcement of the foundation is a bundle using reinforcement mesh 20x20 or 30x30 cm. The best option would be to put two layers of reinforcing mesh at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other.
- followed by casting process, in which it should be noted that the minimum thickness of the concrete slab should not be less than 30 cm.
Construction monolithic foundation - is a complex and expensive process that brooked no interruption.
, however, planning to construction, it should be remembered that solid foundation has the advantages of both:
- the possibility of raising to a mobile ground;
- ease of installation;
- short construction time.
There pictorial guide on how constructed a monolithic slab foundation - the video will introduce the scope and sequence of work.