to build a home on their own is not enough desire and labor, required exact calculation and knowledge of technology.The construction of the building consists of several stages, the main of which - pouring the foundation.After the selected plot of land, furnished all the documents, designed and bought all the material start to the process.Besides saving filling the basement with their hands on their own allows you to control the whole process and compliance technology.Another important point - all work on the laying of the foundation and construction of the building, it is desirable to hold a single season.Otherwise, no load walls, roof and floor structure under the influence of external factors may be deformed.
first stage - the analysis of soil and the variety of designs ↑
the structure of the soil depends on the type and material foundation for the building.To determine the composition of the soil is necessary to take some samples of soil from the pit depth of 1 m. The wet soil in winter are frozen to a considerable depth, which leads to the displacement of the foundation.In the spring because of the looseness of the soil moisture and the foundation sinks.The composition of the soil along the entire length of the foundation is different, so these processes lead to cracks in the structure.Because of these metamorphoses soils are divided into nepuchinistye and distending.The most prominent representative of the latter is the so-called quicksand soil (sand and silty clay).On such soils is not desirable to erect the structure.For slabopuchinistyh soil structure selected from expanded clay, rubble and cement.The foundation on srednepuchinistyh ground made of concrete or solid blocks on a solution.
most difficult to build houses on silnopuchinistyh soils.Here, it is advisable to use a monolithic design and concrete blocks with a strong ligament, and tamp thoroughly before pouring the construction site.
When erecting massive buildings on silnopuchinistyh buried soils is the foundation of reinforced concrete monolithic slabs below the freezing point.With mandatory protective soles underneath and on top of the concrete slab.
material required to perform the work ↑
No matter what technology is pouring the foundation, in the end turn out to be strong and resistant to stress design.Therefore, the choice of material, give preference to the most solid: reinforced concrete, metal, natural stone, asbestos cement pipes, antiseptic wood.
Regardless of the type of soil and the type of construction of the most ideal material for the construction of the foundation is considered to be reinforced.The versatility of this material causes the possibility of creating complex, monolithic structures, its durability and relatively low price.It made a foundation made of cement, sand, gravel in the formwork with reinforced bars or mesh.Prefabricated structures constructed of factory units, which are stacked in a trench or pit.
light on rocky or sandy soils can be used rubble concrete.Large stones using cement-sand mortar to form a sufficiently strong structure, the quality of which depends on the absence of voids and proper bandaging of seams.Before use, the stones must be removed from the dirt and dust.
technology foundation pouring ↑
First tolerated plan bearing walls and partitions in the area.The width of the foundation is greater than the width of walls 20 cm. The corners are driven stakes, between which stretched twine or fishing line.This markup is the benchmark by which digs a trench depth required.Home no more than three floors full height of the foundation must be at least 60-100 cm and 10-15 cm it accounted for above-ground part.This part is built with a wooden formwork panels measuring 25 by 150 mm.Nails are driven inside the casing and the outside bent.The ends of the structures for closer connections are fixed with screws and the most attracted to each drugu.Eto able to prevent the formation of cracks through which the solution will leak.The height of the formwork is done by a few centimeters above the level of fill.
line to the foundation were kept horizontally, the water level should be applied.The formwork every half meter placed transverse struts to the concrete is crushed wooden boards.To structure does not shrink, and the foundation does not need to be deformed dense solid foundation.To this end, the bottom of the trench is filled with sand, a layer of which should be at least 5 cm. And the sand compacted carefully.This process helps water.Wet sand is easily compacted.To seal the sand, you can use the board width slightly less than the width of the ditch, which is packed full of convenient handle.
preparatory stage - reinforcement, waterproofing, ventilation device ↑
Prerequisite create a strong structure not subjected to deformation is to use the foundation reinforcement.To board does not absorb water from the solution and were clean, the inner walls of the formwork boards covered with glassine.It is attached by means of staples 10 cm below ground level.The top level of the foundation of the future is marked by means of line and level.Reinforcement rods must not be closer than 3-5 cm from the borders of the foundation.For reinforcement bars are taken secheniem12 mm, and is made with a mesh grille about 30 to 40 cm.
For greater strength, it is desirable that the length of the structure was less compounds to be either wired or welded.In order to avoid moisture in the structure and under-floor ventilation is done.For these purposes, you can use the asbestos-cement pipe, which is tied to the bars at the wall formwork.Before pouring the foundation inside the pipe is filled with sand to cement the hole is not blocked.Subsequently, the ventilation is desirable to use a stub, which can be used depending on the climatic conditions.This stage comprises inter alia a gasket necessary communications.
Description pouring process ↑
next step - pouring the concrete foundation of three parts sand, one of cement and four gravel.Water is added until until you get the consistency of thick cream-like.The strength of the foundation is directly proportional to the density of the solution.The required amount of concrete is calculated using the formula: height multiplied by the perimeter of the foundation, and then to the wall thickness.The process should take place quickly and at a time.Therefore, for pouring a foundation with his hands, it is desirable to bring assistants to the process went quickly and efficiently.Not bad for this purpose to use the mixer.This will not only facilitate and accelerate the process, but also improve the quality of concrete.
To prevent the formation of air bubbles in the process is necessary to stamp solution.Regardless of soil moisture is required waterproofing design.For this purpose the foundation laid at ground level 2 layers of roofing material.But the underground part of the foundation coat with several times with hot bitumen.The solution is filled up to the upper level.The surface is desirable to carefully smoothed with a trowel.The final stage - installation of waterproofing roofing material or any insulating material.If the weather is wet, it is desirable to cover the design, and if it's hot - periodically sprayed with water.Formwork is removed no earlier than 3 days.Better to do it even later to complete solidification of the solution.
The result is that the foundation pour yourself - not so difficult.As the saying goes: « eyes are afraid, but the hands are doing ».The main use of quality materials, process compliance and diligence.Do not forget to fill in all phases of used water level and a plumb.
To make it more clear how to fill a foundation with his own hands - the video of this process can be seen here: