Lightning have great destructive force, is a big problem for mankind since time immemorial.This is one of the most dangerous phenomena of nature, which poses a threat to the health and lives of people and their property.As technology advances and the emergence of a variety of wireless equipment increased risk of being struck by lightning.At the same time, modern scientific research to successfully fight it.When the sky looming storm clouds and lightning pierce, warning and intelligent person will not be afraid of them, because he had already defended their homes on their direct hit.So, a good host is required to take an interest in how to produce lightning protection of a private house, it will not neglect this simple and at the same time ingenious invention of mankind.
Lightning - a real threat ↑
important to know the nature of the occurrence of lightning.In this and based protection system.
Lightning is not only fascinating, but also very strong and terrible phenomenon.This pulse of electric current, resulting from the accumulation of electrical charge in thunderclouds.The strength of the current can be up to 200,000 A. However, these lightning are very rare, more common lightning power up to 100,000 A. On the globe every second 200 lightning is formed.And, although the probability of being struck by lightning is a very small house, better safe than to regret later.Passing through different materials, electric spark discharge leads to the formation of thermal energy, which is the cause of fire and destruction.Especially dangerous is the phenomenon of wooden buildings, and from this material build most of country houses and cottages.
In this regard, the question arises of homeowners need to protect the house from lightning.Lightning private house needed: it protects the home from fire.Moreover, the cost of the system will take a very tiny fraction of the estimate of construction.
Species principle of lightning ↑
are two types of lightning protection systems of buildings:
- passive and active
passive system - the traditional protection system consisting of air terminal, the collector and ground.Its principle of operation is simple: a lightning rod catches discharge, sends it to the collector with the help of the earth electrode, which extinguishes it in the ground.It is necessary to take into account the type of roofing material and the roof to depending on these features to choose the right type of lightning protection and ensure utmost reliability.
operating principle of active lightning is this: lightning arrester ionizes the air around him, intercepting lightning.
remaining elements of the active lightning protection system is the same as that of the passive, but its range is much more - up to 100 meters.In this case, protection is provided not only the house but also the surrounding buildings.This lightning farmhouse is very common in many countries.But it is more expensive, and passive.
lightning protection device ↑
Lightning protection - a protective measure to ensure the safety of the buildings and the life of people living in them from the damaging effects of a lightning strike.As lightning structure used lightning.
Lightning consists of 3 main elements:
- air terminal;
- ground loop.
Lightning: different types ↑
This metal conductor, which is installed on the roof of the house for the reception of lightning.It is important to establish at the highest point of the roof.In cases where the house is very large and has a complicated structure, it makes sense to install several air terminals.
Lightning can have different types of embodiment:
- metal pin length 0.2 -1,5metra mounted vertically on the highest point of the house.This can be a chimney, roof ridge or TV antenna mast.It is made of metal, are less prone to oxidation in the open air - or copper, for example, galvanized steel.Cross-sectional area of this type of air terminal should be at least 100m2 (if its shape - round, 12 mm diameter would be sufficient).When using a hollow tube end must be facing up to brew.This method is suitable for all types of metal roofing.
- metal wires, spanned by two wooden poles height of 1-2 meters along the ridge of the roof.To construct was more robust, metal supports may be used, but in this case it is necessary to isolate from the cable via insulators.This method is good to use for wood and slate roofs.
- lightning protection mesh , fixed on the ridge of the roof at home, with those who go over the entire surface of the collector grounded roof is ideal for roofing.
Good to know!Lightning need to connect with all the available metal objects on the roof fan, gutters, stairs.
As an alternative to the construction of a lightning rod on the roof can be used, for example, standing next to the tree (if it is, of course, above the house on the 10-15m).Lightning is fixed at its top so as to be higher than the crown at least half a meter.
Then lightning arrester is connected to the current collector.
function and operation of the collector ↑
The collector - is part of a lightning rod, which is designed to remove the charge from the lightning air terminal to earth ground.It is 6mm thick steel wire, welded to the Lightning, which in conjunction with the Lightning must withstand a load of 200 thousand amperes.Note that the welding between the two components of the lightning has to be very reliable to avoid loosening or gap therebetween (for example, from falling snow or formation of strong wind).
The collector is lowered from the top of the walls, nailing his braces, and sent to the earth to the grounding circuit.If multiple shunts, they lay on the walls at a distance of 25 meters from each other, with the most distant from windows and doors.We must remember that they can not be bent sharply (it may be a spark and result - ignition).
Under the rules of the collector should be as short as possible, but at the same time it must be routed close to the places of greatest risk: the edges of gables, sharp protrusions, hearing the windows.
grounding lightning protection system ↑
grounding lightning protection - a device that provides a good contact with the ground collector.This is a common circuit (for household electrical appliances): three electrodes connected to each other and hammered into the ground.Well, if it is already there.
According to the rules, grounding and lightning protection household electrical appliances should be shared.And if it does not, is not so difficult to make - earthing design is quite simple.
To do this, take the Copper 50 mm2 or steel - 80 mm2.Digs a trench 3m and 0.8m deep and trying to drive it on the ends of the steel rods (not completely).With the help of steel and welding rod connects the two.Welded to the outlet structure to the house, which is connected to the collector.Designated welding paint over, then hammered the earthing to the bottom of the trench.
Good to know!Under the rules of the earthing have no closer than 1 meter from the walls and at least 5 meters from the aisles, steps and footpaths.
methods of fastening elements of ↑
Cables and wires, lightning rods, and Current taps installed in 2 ways:
- using tensioning system;
- using remote terminals.
Tension mounting system with the installation of lightning rods held rigid anchors at the base, on the walls and on the roof, between which the cable is pulled.They are equipped with special tensioning clamps.The distance between the anchors can be up to 20-30 meters.On the flat roof are equipped with Lightning spacers (for example, plastic brackets) that keep them above the roof (at a certain distance).
on the walls and flat roofs are used angular and samozabivnye clamps that secure the dowels.On steep roofs, covered keramocherepitsey much harder to fix clamps.There used ridge clamps that are suitable in size and shape to the ridge tiles.By the way, these clips can choose the color tiles, so as not to spoil the appearance of the roof when lightning made cottage.
Current taps Lightning and need to communicate between themselves and with the elements of the house with special screw clamps, which are made of brass, copper or galvanized steel.
few tips on care of the lightning protection ↑
Every year, before the season of storms, it is necessary to examine all parts of a lightning rod, and their places of attachment, so that, if necessary, replace them andcoloring.
once in 3 years should check the connection is valid, clean the contacts, tighten the weakened connections or replace them.
every 5 years is necessary to open the ground electrodes, check the reliability of their connections, as well as the depth of corrosion.If rusty parts-section decreased by more than a third, it must be replaced.
Video: installation of lightning protection ↑
We describe a simple but proven lightning protection system of a private house.And although at the moment lightning protection for private homes project does not provide power (during commissioning the house of her presence is not required), each owner receives their own decision on whether to install it.