sewer system consists of a set of components that provide a total harmonious operation of the network as a whole.Manhole is in this case, the main structure, is carried out not only functional test, and timely cleaning the sewer.Thus, we can say that the observation wells - the central link of the outer sewage.
types of manholes ↑
Depending on the application is accepted to allocate followingvariety of manholes:
- linear mounted on straight sections of the entire sewer system in the distance, which depends on the diameter of the pipe;
- rotary shafts arranged in a change in the direction of the line, iecornering.This type wells different from the linear configuration of the tray-shaped in outline form a smooth curve with the smallest radius of curvature which is equal to three diameters of pipes.The angle of rotation should not exceed 90 degrees.
- nodal satisfied at the points connecting several sewage lines.They have bin hub, connecting no more than one discharge and three feed pipes.Nodal wells in major collector networks called connecting chamber;
- controls are carried out in parts of the connection factory, yard or intra-network to the street, and they are located outside the borders of the red line of construction - from the houses.Wells control type required to manage the operation of the sewer system to add objects;
- wash wells need to flush the system of primary (starting) areas where rainfall is possible because of the low speeds;
- Perepadnaya wells are provided in areas where the elevation varies tray outlet and inlet pipes;
- special wells with enlarged dimensions of the neck and the hatch is mounted on the collectors of 600 mm in diameter at a distance of more than 50 m apart.
traditional design an important part of sewerage ↑
Regardless of the types of accessories viewing drainage pit consists of a base, tray, working chamber, the neck and the hatch.
Wells can be made of different materials: bricks, concrete blocks, rubble.
Scheme (Plan) manhole covers are round, rectangular and polygonal shapes.The base consists of a reinforced concrete slab, which is placed on the rubble.The main part of the process is a tray that is made of reinforced concrete (M 200) with the use of templates - formwork and then rubbing the surface zhelezneniem or cementing.
pipeline goes into tray portion on which the wastewater flow.The linear part of the Tray pits straight and the surface at the bottom - vertical.The height of the tray - is not greater than the diameter of the pipe.On both sides of the tray are formed berm (shelves), which is necessary to give a bias to 0.02 in Tray side.Shelves function as platforms on which during operational activities posted workers.
working chamber has the following dimensions: Height 1800 mm, and the diameter depends on the diameter of the tubes.Thus when d 600 mm - 1000 mm;when d 800-1000 mm - 1500 mm;when d 1200 - 2000 mm.
Openings well standard - 700 mm.With a diameter of 600 mm neck tube should be installed so that they will be entitled to enter the cleaning tools (cylinders and spheres).
cap and workers equipped with cameras mounted ladders or staples for the descent.
transition to the neck is possible with the help of the cone or reinforced concrete slabs.
On the ground level of the neck end hatch that can be mild or severe.
Installing manholes at the improved road surface made of 70 mm from the surface of the earth - in the green zone;in the undeveloped areas - 200 mm above the ground.
If the well is located on a plot of uncoated around the hatch should build a blind area for the drainage of water.
standards in the production of hatches ↑
At first glance it may seem that the hatch - not such an important element of the manhole, but in fact it is not.The proof is in the standards that must be observed in their manufacture.Basic material - iron (GOST 3634-61).Cast iron covers consist of a body with one cover to be mounted on the throat diameter of 700 mm and with a hole for the passage of a diameter of 620 mm.Heavy hatches are placed on the roadway and have a mass of 134 kg, light, mostly stacked on the sidewalks, weigh less than 80 kg.
Along with the cast iron used for the manufacture of polymeric materials which are durable, easily, durability and environmental safety.
This is interesting!
The hatches in the manufacture of polymer added special fillers that make the processing impossible.That is why such manholes are not recycled for reclaimers no interest.
intervals manholes ↑
When the device it should be noted that the distance between manholes linear type depends on the diameter of the pipe.It looks like this:
d = 150 mm - 35 meters;
d = 200 mm - 50 meters;
d = 500 mm - 75 meters;
d = 700-900 mm - 100 meters;
d = 1000-1400 mm - 150 meters;
d = 1500-2000 mm - 200 meters;
d & gt;2000 - 300 m.
Manholes - the main component of the sewer system, not only ensure the unimpeded inspection and supervision over the work of urban pipelines, but also to create conditions for the implementation of important operational activities.It is noted that the process of construction of manholes - costly exercise because it requires, in addition to time and effort, use coarse-massive structures and specialized equipment.
With the advantages of progressive manholes plastic introduce a video: