One of the most important and vital structures in the country, gardens, farmstead or rural farmstead is a toilet.The need for it will appear after a few hours of stay in the area.Ideally you should have two toilets - one street, the second - in the house.Outside toilet needs to go to a day when gardening and not carry the dirt in the house.At night or when the weather is more convenient to go to the toilet warm home.There are several options for resettlement of street toilets: play-closet, pit latrines, powder-closet, toilets and a chemical toilet.Choosing the toilet to give, you must take into account the peculiarities of the terrain, the level of groundwater and health standards.
Rules of organization toilet at the cottage ↑
- distance from the toilet to the reservoir, the well or wells, a stream should be at least 25-30 m. If the site is located on an incline, the toilet should be placed above the well.Such precautions are necessary to run-off have not been put in the drinking water.
- Cesspools securely isolated.This will prevent the ingress of sewage into the ground water and nearby ponds.
- choosing a place for the toilet, it is important to take into account the wind direction and terrain, to the smell of the latrine, not only does not interfere with the owners, but also their neighbors.Keep the toilet clean certainly, that it does not become a source of unpleasant "smell."
- If the water table is at a depth of less than 2 m, the device is allowed to the toilet at the cottage only certain types of powders, closet, toilets and a chemical toilet.
- If the water table is at a depth of 2.5 m, it is possible to build a backlash-closets or pit latrines.
Equipping the toilet in the country with their own hands, first of all, you must decide how deep the water and what type of toilet can be built on site.
How to build a toilet at the cottage - User ↑
1. Determine the desired size of the toilet
Toilet must be at least 1 m deep and 1.5 meters wide, or just uncomfortable.The height of at least 2.2 m. Mark up the site.
2. Cooking support for toilet
It can be made of wood or concrete columns.Four handle asbestos-cement pipes outside bitumen mastic and buried to a depth of 50-70 cm and if you think this lack of depth, can bury up to 90 cm or 1 meter.Pipe a third fill with cement mortar.Inside the pipe is inserted post-reliance and the need to top up the mortar to secure them.
Important!There are toilets for cottages wood, slate, metal sheets and corrugated board as well as brick.The material for the frame and finishes selected depending on your budget and requirements.
3. Produce frame
It can be made of metal parts, welded from their box.There should be four bearing brackets, roof frame and tie on toilet seat has been dropped.It is at these corners will strengthen the wooden toilet seat.
can knock down a framework of timber 50x60 mm.
4. Produce housingtoilet
wooden frame, you can fill the board with nails, will drive them tightly together.But you can use any other material, such as sheets of slate, corrugated or metal sheets.They are screwed to the wood screws.By the frame of the iron corners conveniently fastens slate or corrugated board.
The back wall of the housing can be made two holes: one at the top - for ventilation, net climbs, another - at the bottom, the better to take out the tank with sewage.The lower opening is designed as a door on eyelets.
5. Making the roof
The roof is made of any liked roofing: slate, roofing iron and wood.In the case of a wooden roof, it must be covered with roofing material to the inside does not leak moisture.Making her pent, with a slope to the rear wall.
6. We make the seating
bring down the seat frame of wooden bars.The front of the frame set on the floor, and the back is attached to the corners of the frame or wooden blocks.Seat frame upholstered with polished boards.Cut a hole in the toilet.Be sure to clean all the corners of the burrs.Pain in intimate places we do not need.At the request of the seating position can be painted or varnished.
7. door hung
door can be made of wood, but you can buy ready-made plastic.Above the door, between the roof and the beginning of the door, be sure to make a hole for the lighting of the toilet.The door is hung on two hinges, closing mechanisms do as someone like that.You can set the latch bolt or a hook, and you can not too cunning castle.Latches and set inside the toilet and outside.
Inside the wall hung a wooden box for filling.Install a bucket for toilet paper.Under the toilet seat set capacity is not less than 20-30 liters of sewage.
At the request of the toilet can be a wash basin.If the dimensions allow, hang wash basin and put it under a bucket of dirty water.
demonstrates toilet at the cottage Photo offers the option of a wooden toilet with a roof made of metal sheets, window light is not glazed.
sanitary facilities with cesspool ↑
device pit latrines different from the toilet-powders stationary cesspool.It fall into metabolic products, the liquid component is partially vaporized, it seeps partially into the ground and collects the solid.Dense component is removed from the pit as they gain manually or by machine assenizatorskaya.
This toilet can be built only in a place of deep groundwater.
Very often in the villages do not clean the cesspool.When it is full, the toilet was transferred to a new location.The old pit just buried.A few years later feces rot and can serve as an excellent fertilizer.In the old toilet seat can be built in 4-5 years.
instructions for the construction of pit latrines
1. Determine the construction site : away from the well, stream or well.
2. Digging cesspool
depth of about 1.5 m. Making a bias towards the rear wall of the toilet.If further treatment is implicit in the pits, the bottom littered with rubble, and the walls are strengthening boards.Treated with hot antiseptic.Another option: the bottom and the walls of rammed clay at least 10cm, better - 25cm.
3. Produce support
Base, which will stand the toilet, bring down from a bar 100x100 mm.Since the board will lie in the ground, then treat them with an antiseptic or oil impregnated with molten bitumen.Fix the support so that it may under no circumstances slid into the pit.
also the base can be made of concrete slabs, such as sidewalk curb.In this case no further processing is required.
4. Do flooring over the pit
was covered with concrete or wooden beams, leaving between them sufficient space for convenient purification of the pit.Flooring bring down from the boards, cover them with roofing material.
5. Produce hatch for cleaning
set behind the toilet door.His cover is also treated with an antiseptic.
6. Making ventilation
behind the back wall of the bathroom to lay pipes emanating from the sump.It may be a conventional sewage pipe 100 mm in diameter.Attach it to the back wall of the dressing room with iron clamps.The pipe must be less than the floor level by 15 cm. We raise it above the roof of the toilet 1 m, cover on top of the hood to no water.
7. Install housing toilet on the beam
Corps performed just as well as in-powders closet.His arrangement is also identical.
8. perform blind area and arrange drainage channels
The diagram below the toilet in the country (such as play-closet) shows the location of the required elements: drawing, toilet seat, sunroof, washstand, blind area of concrete, clay castle.
Features-powders closet ↑
device such toilet different from the traditional village toilet: cesspool absent, and instead installed a waterproof container that is emptied as required.To prevent the proliferation of flies and remove bad smell, after each trip to the toilet sewage "pripudrivayut" ash, peat or sawdust.Hence the name --powders closet.
build latrines in the country such as powders, the closet has several advantages: you can have next to the house or even under the same roof with him, easier construction technology, no contamination of groundwater.Filled container is emptied into the cesspool, the contents of which later turns into organic fertilizer for the garden.
backlash-closets and its differences ↑
This type of toilet can be built only when meant cleaning the sump via assenizatorskaya machines and produced heated pits to uncleanness not freeze.Typically play-set closet in the house or near it.In fact, this refined rustic pit latrines.
Construction technology play-closet has a few differences:
- surface sump lining of concrete or brick, which will not allow a dirty media to soak into the ground.
- Height clay pit performed the lock with a minimum thickness of 25 cm.
- ventilation pipe from the pit is carried out through the hood stove or furnace, coal-fired, wood or other solid fuel.Pipes can use ceramic or asbestos cement.If the stove runs on gas, then play warm-channel low-power electric heater is used.Hood raking must be completely sealed, it will provide its high-quality work.
- -hatch cover over the cesspool is double.Outer - metal or cast iron and the bottom - timber.The empty space between them must be filled with dry insulation, such as sawdust or mineral wool.
Construction of toilets in the country will take about a week.
Dry closets - a modernized facility ↑
This type of toilet is a modernized-powders closet.The only difference is that the powders-closet poured sawdust or peat, in biotoilet - special microorganisms.Installing a toilet at the cottage troublesome, buy ready-made and bio-toilet easier.Especially since they have a different shape, you can buy and put in a small house.Cleaning of the toilet is much more convenient than in-powders closet.The only drawback: you need to constantly buy microorganisms to clean.But impurities are converted into organic fertilizer, which is not toxic and can be used immediately, in the beds.
chemical toilet to give ↑
This suite differs from the only dry closet cleaner: it is not organic and chemical.Therefore, the resulting mass can not be used as fertilizer.Moreover, it is not desirable to pour in a compost pit.
Each of the above types of toilets has its advantages and disadvantages.Some have restrictions on the construction.The final decision rests with the personal wishes and financial possibilities.