For the vast majority of the strong half of our country's garage - it's not just a place to store the car, but also a workshop, utility room, store tools, spare parts and other equipment.So often good lighting is not a luxury but a necessity.Average "elektronabor" every garage consists of several lighting devices located in different zones, and energized by their switches lighting observation pits and basement, as well as two or three outlets, providing more power for power consumers.Conduct electricity in the garage - the process is not very complicated.Therefore, wiring in the garage with his hands no surprise, in order to properly carry out its installation quite basic skills of working with electricity.
nuances of wiring in the garage ↑
As a rule, in the garage rare
To improve the safety of electrical devices is recommended on the introduction of the switchboard set separate grounding device.The simplest version of the ground: metal rods with a diameter of 15-16 mm, vertically dug into the ground and connected by a steel strip.The resistance of such a device should not exceed 4 ohms.
Since the garage, thanks to moisture and conductive walls, the structure is considered to be high risk, all of the attributes (sockets, switches and lights) must have a high degree of protection against dust and moisture, ideally IP44.
If the garage is planned to create this workshop, you need to take care of the three-phase input.In this case, you will need a cable with copper conductors with cross-sectional area of 5-10 square millimeters, and shield, designed no less than 18 units.But that's not the point ...
The main thing is that before the three-phase power supply system must be authorized and technical conditions in the local Energosbyt, every item that you want to be sure to comply.
Development wiring diagrams ↑
In order to avoid mistakes during installation and do everything right, required circuit wiring in the garage - a plan which details all accommodations marked sockets, switches, electric cables, etc.The basic rules of this process:
- The scheme must be very accurately mark all locations of lighting fixtures, boxes, switches and sockets.
- elements are interconnected solely by straight lines at right angles to each other.Compound starts from the switchboard.It should be noted
- ways to connect every element.Probably everyone remembers that switches the lamp connected only in series, and the socket is sure to switch.
- should be noted that the distance from the wire to the ceiling should not be less than 100 mm from the wall to the floor at least 500 mm and the main switch is located on the right side of the gate at a height of 1500 mm.
Further wiring diagram in the garage is transferred to the wall.Exact straight line can be easily applied with a long cord, dipped in dye.
Electrical tools and equipment ↑
next step - preparing all that you may need a person to think about how to carry out the wiring in the garage.So, be sure to need the following equipment:
- hammer, chisel, screwdriver, cutter and pliers with insulated handles;
- drill and a few drills;
- masking tape and plaster;
- punch (in the event that the concrete wall of the garage);
- hardware (anchors, screws, screws);
- electric devices (you can get a screwdriver indicator).
main element of power - electrical cable.It is best proven copper cables with, but you can use aluminum products, however, their conductive properties are somewhat lower.Additionally, you need to purchase corrugated pipe, assembly and installation boxes, sockets, lighting fixtures, adapters, step-down transformers and switches.
electrical installation garage ↑
Electrification garage can be divided into two stages:
- installation of outdoor wiring (from the power lines to the entrance to the room);
- internal wiring in the garage.
If the internal wiring in the garage with his hands often mounted, the external work must always be performed by a qualified electrician with access to work with high-voltage lines.
Important: before summing up electricity to the garage project to be agreed with the local authority power company.
consider in detail how to do the wiring in the garage and the outside and inside.
the outside of the device ↑
There are two ways to transmit electricity from the electric pole to the building: air and underground.When selecting usually guided by factors such as the relative positions of the garage with other objects.If the garage is located at a distance of more than 25 meters from the power lines, then for the cable by air it will require extra poles.The height of the placement of the wire must be:
- about buildings - more than 2.75 m;
- on footpaths - more than 3.75 m;
- over the road - more than 6 m.
input air line runs through the wall at a height of not less than 2.75 m. To this end, the outside of the garage on special hooks mounted insulators so that the distance between the cables was more than 0.2 meters.
Tip: drill holes in the wall under the input wires should be sloping outwards.This will prevent the ingress of water into it.
Before entering the garage must be insulated with plastic or rubber tubing, and after - to cement all the cracks carefully repaired or alabaster.
Some owners of low-rise garages could ask the question, how to do the wiring in the garage if it does not exceed the height of 2.75 m?As the power company to get permission for such a project?Surely in this case, will have to do without electricity?Well, of course not.Just in this case it is necessary to install a so-called Pipe counter - stainless steel tube, whose upper end is bent 180 ° and is equipped with receiving insulators.This arrangement makes it possible to introduce the electric wires, even through the roof.Mounted Pipe counter to the rafters of the roof.
A few words must be said about the way the underground garage electrification.In this case the cable in the ground and is protected by a steel duct.The garage wires are introduced through the prepared hole in the foundation.The cable passes through the point of entry, make sure the pipe is protected to the same wire is prepared for each individual hole.
At the end of the electrician carrying out the external wiring should bring cables to the input box with the electric meter and fuse.And further, if the decision to conduct an independent lighting inside the garage, it takes a host.
Internal wiring ↑
Internal wiring can be open, and may be hidden.As mentioned above, metal and wooden structures is very difficult to carry concealed installation, so relevant for these garages open way.In this case, the cables are attached to baseboards or special metal or plastic boxes.More effective for open wiring planar conductor (eg APPV, PPV, ASDP), as well as unarmored cables protected.
On the walls are attached with tin wire staples, nails or dowels at a distance of no more than 0.4 m. The layout is required to carry out horizontally, 20 cm from the ceiling, and the box are glued or screwed screws.
in brick and stone buildings more popular concealed wiring.It is best to carry out all the work up to plastering the walls, in this case, you need only follow the correct installation of the equipment, that is, that after plastering is not peeping, for example, the edges of junction boxes.If, however, the electrification is performed after the application of plaster, it will be necessary to cut down the walls of shallow grooves (5-6 mm - more than enough), that after laying them wires and fixing nails, carefully closed up.
important: the main feature of the flush-mounted - the need for soldering wire ends to be connected.This will avoid oxidation and unwinding.After that, the connection is usually fixed with tape.
Lighting observation pits and basement ↑
Neither the car owner, has its own garage, can not do without a viewing hole.And in the basement can be called a mandatory attribute of any garage.Neither there nor there without lighting is necessary.It would seem possible to connect portable lighting, and an observation hole, and a cellar in the garage is usually characterized by high humidity and are considered high-risk facilities.That is why the voltage in these parts should not exceed 42 volts and, therefore, need for wiring of small step-down transformer.
Naturally, when setting down the equipment must be purchased lamps and electrical tools, designed for such a small voltage.
important: work in a garage or in the basement of the observation well with a conventional electrical equipment life-threatening.
Safety rules ↑
That somehow I've got confidence that decided on their own to carry out the electricity in your garage, few people ... Yes there modest, most likely no one look into the safety requirements.Well, we do not like to read books so serious.Therefore, the article would be incomplete without some of the main points of this extremely important topic.
- make any repairs and replacement of wiring for the electricity in the room and even the replacement of sockets and light bulbs, only in the absence of stress.This can be simple to unscrew the plug, if they still have any set, or disable plug-automatic and automatic machines in the control panel of the apartment.
- Fashion should be comfortable, without hindering movement.
- All power must be an integer, with no exposed wires and poor quality of their connections;
- Average tool should not only be an integer, but with insulated handles.
- to perform work at height must use special platforms or goats, but not the barrels, blocks, tables and chairs on the other all your favorite design.
- Most importantly, take your time, do not forget about their safety.
And finally, take with full responsibility in this matter.After all, the correct wiring ensures its operation for 30 years.Any wrong move, just pure laziness (eg neglect of soldering wires) can damage the entire electrical network, and for hidden installation lead to serious repair work.So if you at least for a fraction of doubt yourself, invite these electricians are able to quickly and easily cope with the electrical installation in the garage.