Types of drills - select tool for drilling metal, wood, concrete and tile
Drills are used to create holes or depressions in any material.This occurs due to the movement of the cutting edge along an axis which thus rotates.In addition to the manufacture of the new holes, drilled You can expand the old and having insufficient diameter.The process of making holes called drilling, expanding it - reaming.If done only deepening, it is a pilot drilling.By design, different types of drills are very different from each other.Next, consider what they are.
- Variety of drills - the main parameters
- Different materials drill different drills
- Working Metal
- We work on concrete and brick
- We work on glass and ceramic tile
- Video: Types of drills
Variety of drills - the main parameters
type and shape of the working part
1. Auger bits, also called spiral, often used in everyday life.This tool, which can reach a length of 27.5 centimeters, can be drilled as wood
2. Surface drill, shaped pen, hence the second name - down is used for drilling large and deep holes.The cutting edge had formed as a blade.It can be formed integral, with the shaft and can be attached via a special holder or boring bar.
3. for deep drilling.If to be particularly deep drill hole, whose depth exceeds the diameter of the drill 5, used long drill having two helical channel.These channels flows special emulsion, cooling the tool during operation.The channels are made either inside the drill or soldered to the inside of the rear part of the tubes.
4. drill unilateral cuts.When produced in an opening must be particularly precise dimensions, take a drill designed for cutting only one side.It has a support plane, and two cutting edges are located on one side of the central axis of the tool.
5. inside the hollow core cutter.Due to this construction, it is drilled into the material only a narrow ring.This so-called crown.
6. to do in parts center hole, use a special drill, called centering.
There are several varieties of the tail section of the instrument.Here they are.Thus, the shank is:
- Made in the form of a cylinder;
- manufactured in the form of a cone;
- faceted, having three, four or six faces;
- such as SDS.
method of manufacturing a drill
drill can be made from a single piece of metal (the diameter was not more than 8 mm) or alloy (diameter up to 6 mm).It uses a special steel, which has the name "high speed."Its brands: R9K15, P9 or P18.If
drill diameter greater than 8 millimeters, it is fabricated by welding.This is the part that hurts, made of carbon steel, and tail - made of carbon steel.
When drilling be fragile and brittle materials, use drill, equipped with hard alloy.It has grooves which may be straight, beveled or screw type.
What shape the hole to be treated
Depending on the task, and the appointment of different drills.Thus, in the form of holes, they are divided into the following types:
The coated drill
1. The cheapest cover - this black oxide film.It prevents the tool from rust and protects it from overheating.The service life of the drill, of course, increased.
2. ceramic coating of titanium nitride is very strong.It prolongs the life of the tool is not less than 3 times.Drill with TiN coating can not be sharpened, or all of its benefits come to naught.
3. even more high quality and reliability of different drills coated TiAlN - Titanium aluminum nitride.This is a drill can smoothly work 5 times longer than ordinary.
4. about the same as a coating of titanium carbonitride is considered, otherwise, TiCN.
5. working with materials of high hardness, such as granite or stone, it is necessary to use the most durable drill bits - diamond coated.They have no equal in strength.
Different materials in different drill drills
1. If you have to make holes in the non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, using a drill spiral type.According to these carved out longitudinal grooves dust from the work.It should be noted that the types of drills for metal differ from each other not only pictures and covering, but also the type of the shank.It may be made as a cone, cylinder or hexagon.For fixing cylindrical drills need cartridge inserted conical easier - directly into the machine.
quality drill and you can define the eyes - for this you should look more closely to its coloring.So, the usual drill of low quality are nondescript gray.
But drill black is more durable - it means that it is processed at the end of production of superheated steam.
Light shade of gold has a tool that is processed by the holiday, taking the internal stress.
And if you drill a bright shiny gold, then it is coated with titanium nitride.This drill will long serve faithfully and friction had decreased due to the coating.Although its price is higher than in other types of drill bits, but the quality more than compensated her.
2. carbide drills.Since metals have a different density, and then drill to processing necessary to use different.Such solid materials such as heat-resistant steel, cast iron or non-ferrous metal, require a tool made of cemented carbide.
3. A few words should be said about the type of step drills, which appeared not long ago.They are very easy to drill quite thin sheets of plastic, tin and roofing materials.Holes may be prepared at the same time from 0.4 to 3.6 centimeters or more.
If you have to make small holes (less than 1.2 cm in diameter) in the particle board or wood surface, then these will cope with normal twist drills for metal.But big or requiring higher precision holes drilled only a special tool designed to work with wood surfaces.They are made of special tool steel, carbon steel or alloy.For the metal, they are not suitable.The following types of drills on a tree:
1. drills type suitable for small and medium-sized holes.Instead, you can take a drill for metal, but the hole will slightly worse quality.
2. Auger bits.Drill single- type with a sharp edge for cutting is also called twisted.Due to the shape of such a screw from his job at a well-removed excess chips.If you want to get a deep hole with smooth edges, without the screw drill is necessary.
above spiral lower crimped drill on concrete.
3. Drill pen type is suitable for holes with a diameter of 2 cm to 5 cm.The result was not very high quality - rough walls, approximate accuracy.But these drills can please a very low price.
4. Crowns Wood.Drill formed as a crown (ring) may be used as will drill a hole with a diameter of 10 centimeters.Typically, there is one set of the shank, the mandrel and the center drill.Crowns in the same kit included several pieces.
5. drill Forsnera a tip for centering, as well as scorer with a sharp edge.Thanks to him we get an exact cut-off line.For blind holes type with exact dimensions, this tool is perfect.They drilled wood softwood and laminated chipboard.
We work on concrete and brick
to work comfortably with surfaces such as brick, stone and concrete, it is necessary to have a drill with a solid tip.It is made of a special alloy, and the drilling is performed using shock rotational movements.
Unlike conventional drill bits with a cylindrical shank-type drill bit used in the punch may further cylindrical, and have a different shape.This, for example, SDS-top, SDS-max or SDS-plus.Drills with SDS shanks are used to work with punches.
1. If you need to do in the concrete medium or small hole, take a drill or a drill with a tip made of carbide.Form tool - in the form of a screw.
top of the concrete drill bit, drill below the concrete to the punch.
2. large crown drill holes, which are on the edge of the teeth of hard metal.At the same time we apply the method of percussion drilling, using a hammer.You can also use the tool having a diamond coating.They work either unstressed drilling with water cooling or dry drilling.At the nozzle is inside the core - cut a piece of material.
pobeditovye drill may have a different quality - it depends on the brand of the material (pobedita).To drill granite surface, it is necessary to take a drill having a plate of pobedita medium or high hardness.Plates medium soft or soft, suitable for soft concrete or brick.This should be considered when buying pobeditovye drills and drills.
We work on glass and ceramic tile
Glass and tile drill more convenient or a crown, or an instrument made in the form of a spear.
1. have spear-shaped tip of the drill bit can be either pobeditovym or made of tungsten carbide.In addition, there are annular drill with diamond coating.If there is no special tool, you can take a drill to work on concrete, only sharp.And we must work carefully - it's a drill has a different shape.
spear drill bit for ceramic tile and below the ring with a diamond-coated drill.
2. But the crown on the glass or ceramic tile looks just like a crown for concrete work, but it does not have teeth, but only spraying.
3. Tiles can be drilled with special Ballerina.They are useful if you want to make a big hole.Drill carefully from the inside tile drill turns placing a minimum.
Perhaps classification drills would be incomplete without mentioning the universal drill.Confining space, such a tool can be run on virtually all surfaces.Brick and concrete, tile, wood with plastic, aluminum, steel, - cope with all of this drill-wagon.He and sharpening tricky, which, incidentally, also called universal.
Video: Types of drills
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