gable roof Rafter system and its device
future owner of a private house in the choice of the roof often choose low-cost version with two ramps.Practical and simple construction of such a roof is reliable, durable and provides good protection from the weather.Consider how to construct a gable roof truss system - a key element of its design.
- About gable roof in a nutshell
- Components gable roof
- Types of roof systems gable roof
- Installation example truss system gable roof
About gable roof in a nutshell
called gable roof which has two rectangular flat top of the ramp connected at an angle.Thus the sides are triangular openings.There are inserted into the gables.To design was strong, reliable, and served for a long time it used different retaining and supporting elements.The most important of them - the gable roof truss system, which, in fact, is devoted to this material.
Components gable roof
In general, all these elements are pitched roof boards, bars and beams o
It softwood lumber square, the size of which is usually 10 or 15 centimeters.He put along each of the load-bearing walls, by sticking them on the thread rods or anchors.The purpose of this item - a uniform transfer of load from the legs to the rafters bearing walls.
This board, which has a cross-sectional dimensions of 15 centimeters by 5 (or 10) centimeters.It is from these elements is going to our triangular contour of the roof, which bears the brunt of the wind, hail, snow and other weather vagaries.In order to adequately withstand them, rafters have increments from 0.6 to 1.2 meters.The more weighty supposed roof, the smaller this distance.Additionally, trusses step, in some cases, will depend on the design features of the roofing used.
Square board for this element has the same cross-section as for mauerlat - 10/10 or 15/15 centimeters.Its horizontally placed on the inner wall of the carrier in order to evenly distribute the load on the roof rack.
This element is used for hanging truss system.It completes the triangle rafters, not allowing it to spread.
Bruce for them the square is taken, the same as for the previous item.Racks are placed vertically, taking the load off the ridge and passing it to the supporting wall inside the house.
These elements act as an interface between your feet and the rafters bearing elements.Joining the tightness and struts receive farm - a very strong element.Even with a large span truss stoically endure all of the loads.
Perpendicular feet rafters put bars (or board) sheathing.By submitting the whole burden of the roof rafters, the structural element further strengthens them.Preferably everything for batten bars or take Eaves boards.But for lack of a better amiss and not edging board - but with the bark removed.Well, in the case of soft roofing (for example bitumen-based shingles) make a solid crate.To do this, take a water-resistant plywood sheets.
roof ridge The ridge is the top position of the roof connecting the two roof slope.It is formed by connecting the rafter at the top of the roof.It is located horizontally.
This element protruding from the wall at a distance of about 40 centimeters of rain does not wet the walls flows.
Again "horse" title.These design elements gable roof truss system are necessary for the organization of the eaves.The need for them appears only when the rafters are too short, and the eaves are not enough.Then lengthen those legs mare, which are slightly smaller board section.
Types of roof gable roof systems
these systems are only two types of hanging and naslonnogo type.The first is used in the case where the external walls are spaced from each other by 10 meters or less.There is one condition - between the very walls of the wall should not be carrying a type of dividing the house in two.Otherwise, you should use naslonnye rafters.When a house under construction is not shared by a supporting wall and columns, mounted just two roof system.Rafters located obliquely, oboprutsya on columns and hanging perfectly placed between them.
Rafter system hanging type
For this scheme gable roof truss system characterized by the fact that the rafters rest on the side walls.The bad news is that with the formation arching load that can over time damage the wall.To this did not happen, leg rafters connect tightening.The result is a tight triangle, not subject to deformation under load.Often, instead of using puffs joists, it is especially important when it is necessary to equip the attic under the roof.
Plus this system is that it is not necessary to fix mauerlat.Moreover, simply assembled construction the parts where the legs rest on the rafters of the wall.Board, cut through the insulating layer, will help make the farm level and stable, providing a large area of support.Next, consider the main types of hanging rafters.All are trehsharnirnymi.
# 1. trehsharnirnaya simple triangular arch.
This is the most simple structure, which is a closed triangle, the top two sides of which are subject to bending stress.Tightening of such a construction is not only works in tension and not a supporting structure, so it can be replaced by a strand of steel.
In this case, there are several decisions of the construction site of cornice.This orthogonal frontal notching, as well as the use of plank or plate bindings.
# 2. trehsharnirnaya triangular arch reinforced headstock or suspension.
This option is only used earlier to build more industrial or agricultural facilities with a span of more than 6 meters.For private homes, this scheme is not necessary.Its principle is that the weight of torque (composed of separate short elements) takes the horse.These elements are interconnected with suspension clamp using prirub (oblique or direct).For fastening screws are used.Suspension is called the grandmother, and steel - cord.This part is hanging on the eaves node and tightening attached to its lower part through a wooden lining.Adapters are clips governing deflection tightening if it sags.
# 3. trehsharnirnaya triangular arch with raised tightening.
If you want to equip the attic under the roof, this scheme is perfect.Here we put a banner not down, pulling leg rafters and above.Raising it above, we are increasing the load on the stretch.Well, hold on a rafter beams mauerlat on the principle of the slide.The load is uniform, and the system - sustainable.For this purpose the edge rafters should act beyond the outer walls of the house.
to tighten any slack, often balance its suspension.This is especially important if you plan to do or to make a false ceiling insulation layers.When tightening the short suspension is attached to the collar beams and the roof ridge, nailing two boards at the long - make several pendants.When heavy loads are used for mounting clamps.They also connect the two parts, if necessary, an integral tightening.
# 4. Trehsharnirnaya triangular arch with bolt.
mounted in such a system, if large load spacer.Below is fixed tightening and at the top - bolt.With this design mauerlat to attach to the wall is not necessary.In general, the bolt - this is the tightening, not only test the tensile load, and compression.Rigel must not have hinging at the feet of the rafters, and the design will be unsteady.If you do everything right, then turn to the rafters continuous beams with three legs and two flights.
# 5. Trehsharnirnaya triangular arch with his grandmother, complete with braces.
Regarding systems and grandmother told a little higher.If this design rafters legs are long enough to prop up their accounts.To do this, and serve as struts, rafters sag reduce the load.Bearing walls have the hanging system is not so necessary to rest struts grandmother.Stable rigid system receives most of the load on the upper part of her, not bringing it to the bottom of the rafters.The delay in the construction of such a component is usually connected prirub.Based on the collar grandmother, she pulls down the ridge assembly.And that affects the suspension and rafters, squeezing them.
Rafter system naslonnogo type
This system is placed exactly in the middle of the vertical beam.The weight of the entire roof beam passes through this ridge to the supporting wall.This wall is located at an equal distance from the ends of the building.As mentioned, the need for such a separation of the building appears with the distance between its external walls 10 meters.
# 1. Bezraspornye naslonnye rafters.
In this design, the legs are exposed rafters only bend without pressing on the walls and not raspiraya them.There are three options for installation of trusses, which solve the problem of loads on the building.
In the first variant support for rafters or is mauerlat or sutured his special bar (support).For fastening used vrubka tooth.Fear design clamps or wire, which is a guarantee of reliability design.Upper leg rafters put on a ridge run.Fastening on the principle of sliding bearings.Be sure to fix the holes in the top of the rafters.
This is the most popular design.It bottoms rafters to attach to mauerlat mobile connections by type slider.It is also possible using the mount piece bar.To keep a tight leg, trying to drive a nail on top.Or you can attach a flexible plate of steel.At the top of the rafters, ridge lying on the run, secure the shell-holes or in pairs, or in runs (each of the rafters).
feature the latest version of that leg rafters and run the skate firmly connected into one.To this end the beam parallel to the ridge on both sides packed tablets or bars.This beam is experiencing severe load on a bend, but the leg rafters sag much less.This option is more complicated in execution, than the second, so is used less frequently.
# 2. spacer naslonnye rafters.
In this case, the device gable roof system is almost similar to the previous three options.There is one caveat: you have to replace the mounting feet of the rafters with a movable (like a slider) on a rigid, motionless.And then begin to transfer the rafters bursting load bearing walls of the house.In general, such spacers rafters serve as the intermediary system of inclined to hanging.However, unlike the trailing trusses it is that they do not run a substantial part.It is possible and without it.
For mauerlat spacer system must be very hard to attach to the wall of the house.Even the walls have to be thick and strong.Can be used around the perimeter of the belt made of reinforced concrete.
# 3. rafters with struts.
buckled, which, in essence, is the third leg rafters, also called podstropilnoy foot.This third leg of the compression, is placed at an angle of 45 degrees.In this way, even overlap with spans up to 14 meters, and beamed with a not very large cross section.After all, here miraculously beam with a span turns into a continuous beam with two spans.
count strut is not necessary, just nail it on both sides, exposing the rafters.This will prevent canting move.The main thing - just to cut the canting angle, taking into account the slope of the leg rafters.To determine the beam cross section necessary for the rafters, it is necessary to calculate the load in compression.
# 4. Rafters on podstropilnyh beams.
If the house two load-bearing walls, use two podstropilnye design.They consist of stacked on the long side of the roof beams.Below them are installed on the rack beams lie.Also supports for them are sill and interior walls of the house.If no runs, put a rack for each leg rafters.The upper part of the rafters are joined one to another, and are tied with steel or wooden plates.Ridge pole is not, so there is the thrust.
Tightening put below runs through type - so void bezraspornoy thrust system.At the bottom of the rack to secure the stability of the scrum.Real working as bolts, takes in load.She does not tip racks.Pointing attached crosswise.
Installation example gable roof system
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