Types of insulation properties and characteristics
insulation for any temperature range can not hurt.If it is correct to hold, in the winter in the rooms will be significantly warmer and in the summer heat - cooler.Wall insulation will help to create a comfortable microclimate in the apartment and in the room to work.Manufacturers have tried and types of heaters today shine diversity.
Arriving at the market or building materials supermarket, you can only wonder diversity manufactured heaters.They are wound in coils and bundles piled in the container in the form of granules, powders and perlite, peep wool of the packages.And they are made in a variety of cylinders, bricks, blocks and slabs.What to choose?In principle, the first shape is not important, as content.This further.
- insulation preventing type
- Heat insulator on an organic basis
- Heat insulator inorganic type
- insulation reflective type
- Video: Select materials for thermal insulation of buildings
If you understand the characteristics of the insulation material, you can easily choose the one that is needed.The main property is its thermal conductivity of the heat insulator.It shows how much heat can pass through the active material.There are two types of insulation:
- insulation reflective type reduces heat consumption due to the fact that the infrared radiation is reduced.
- insulation preventing type (it is used in most cases) involves the use of a heater with low thermal conductivity.This can be used as one of three types of materials: inorganic, organic or mixed.
insulation preventing type
Heat insulator on an organic basis
Organic heaters are widely presented in the modern construction market.For their production of the raw material of natural origin (agricultural residues and wood processing).Also the organic heat insulator includes some plastics and cement.
The resulting material has a high resistance to fire, not wet, it does not respond to bioactive substances.It is used where the surface is not heated above 150 degrees.The organic insulator is often placed as an internal layer of a multilayer structure.This, for example, triple-pane or plastered facades.Next, consider what types of heaters are organic.
1. wood-concrete insulation.
This is a fairly new building material made from fine sawdust, shavings, chopped straw or reeds.The basis add cement and chemical additives.This calcium chloride, alumina sulphate and water glass.At the last stage of the production process the product mineralizer.
arbolit has the following characteristics:
- density - from 500 to 700 kilograms per cubic meter.
- Thermal conductivity - 0.08 to 0.12 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- Compressive strength - from 0.5 to 3.5 MPa.
- Bending strength - from 0.4 to 1 MPa.
2. Peno PVC insulation.
PPVH consists of polyvinyl chloride resin, which after porization acquire special foam structure.Since this material may be either hard or soft, then it is universal insulator.There are different types of insulation for walls, roofs, facade, floor and entrance doors made of PPVH.Density (average) of this material was 0.1 kilograms per cubic meter.
3. Insulation made of particleboard.
Chipboard basically have small chips.It is nine-tenths of the total volume of material.The rest - synthetic resins, antiseptic substance Antisimple, water repellent.
DSP has the following characteristics:
- density - from 500 to 1000 kilograms per cubic meter.
- Tensile strength stretching - from 0.2 to 0.5 MPa.
- Bending strength - from 10 to 25 megapascals.
- humidity - from 5 to 12 percent.
- Absorption material of water - from 5 to 30 percent.
4. Insulation of MEP.
Fiberboard insulating board composition resembles particleboard.The basis are either wood waste or trim straw and maize stalks.It may even be an old paper.To link bases are used synthetic resins.The additives are antiseptics, fire retardants and water-repellent substances.
MEP Features are:
- density - no more than 250 kilograms per cubic meter.
- Bending strength - not more than 12 MPa.
- Thermal conductivity - 0.07 watts per meter per Kelvin.
5. polyurethane foam insulation.
Polyurethane is based on polyester, which are added to water, emulsifiers and diisocyanate.Under the influence of these catalyst components react chemically to form a new substance.It has a good level of noise absorption, chemically passive, not afraid of water.In addition, the polyurethane foam - an excellent thermal insulator.Since it is deposited by sputtering, it is possible to process wall and ceiling of a complex configuration.This cold bridges do not appear.
- density - from 40 to 80 kilograms per cubic meter.When the density of 50 kilograms per cubic meter of water-resistant polyurethane becomes.
- Thermal conductivity - from 0,019 to 0,028 watts per meter per Kelvin.This value - the best of all modern insulating materials.
application of polyurethane foam insulation on the surface of the walls.
- See material & gt; & gt;The properties and characteristics of the polyurethane its advantages and disadvantages
6. Mipora (Penoizol).
If you beat a urea-formaldehyde resin, or more precisely, its aqueous emulsion will mipora.To the material was brittle in the feedstock put glycerol.For the formation of foam added sulfonic acids derived from petroleum.A catalyst that promotes hardening mass is an organic acid.Miporu sold in the form of chips and blocks.If it comes in a liquid form, then it is poured in the construction in special cavities.There, at room temperature, it becomes hard.
- density - no more than 20 kilograms per cubic meter.Compared with stopper this figure is less than about 10 times.
- Thermal conductivity - of the order of 0.03 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- Ignition temperature - 500 degrees.If the temperature is below this value, the material does not burn, but only undergoes charring.
- Outs mipory are defenseless before exposure to corrosive chemicals, as well as strong absorption of water.
- See material & gt; & gt; Specifications penoizol, its properties and disadvantages of both insulation
Expanded polystyrene, also known as PPP, also known as foam by 98 percent is from the air.The remaining 2 percent - polystyrene, which is obtained from petroleum.Once a part has a small amount of polystyrene modifiers.In particular, it can be flame retardants.
- Thermal conductivity - from 0,037 to 0,042 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- Waterproofing Quality - high.
- Corrosion resistance - high.
- Resistant and biological agents microflora - high.
- Flammability - low.The material is able to fade on their own.If polystyrene still lights up, the heat energy it releases 7 times less than wood.
plates simple foam can also be attributed to this type of insulation.
- See material & gt; & gt; Styrofoam - characteristics and selection criteria
8. Insulation polyethylene foam.
If the polyethylene in the manufacturing process to add a foaming agent (a type of hydrocarbon), we get a material with numerous fine pores inside.He has a good vapor barrier properties, and excellent protection against external noise.
properties of polyethylene foam:
- density - from 25 to 50 kilograms per cubic meter.
- Thermal conductivity - from 0,044 to 0,051 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- temperature range - from minus 40 to plus 100 degrees.
- Moisture absorption - low.
- Chemical and biological passivity - high.
polyethylene foam in rolls, often produce a special form for insulating pipes.
Taking the narrow and thin wood chips, also known as wood wool, adding to the binding cement or magnesia component obtain fiberboard.It comes in the form of plates.This material is not afraid of aggressive chemical and biological impacts.Not bad protects against noise, and can also be used in rooms where it is very humid.This, for example, swimming pools.
- density - from 300 to 500 kilograms per cubic meter.
- Thermal conductivity - 0.08 to 0.1 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- Fire resistance - high.
10. Sotoplastovy insulation.
Typically, this material consists of hexagonal cells resembling honeycombs - hence the name.However, there are kinds of honeycomb, where the shape of the cell is different from the hexagon.The filler is a special paper or cloth based on carbon, cellulose, glass or organic fibers coated film.These fibers are connected using thermosetting resins - phenolic or epoxy.External sotoplastovyh side panels are thin sheets of laminate.
Characteristics honeycomb depend on what is the basis of this raw material.A significant role is played by the size of cells and the amount of resin used to bind the substrate.
This material is made of waste paper and cardboard production.Used waste remaining in the manufacture of corrugated containers, defective books, newspapers, magazines and cardboard waste production.Trash can and used for these purposes - only the quality of raw materials will be lower.It contaminated the material will become faster, and will be different raznosortnyh and heterogeneity.
- Soundproofing - very high.The layer of material is just 1.5 centimeters is capable of absorbing up to 9 decibels of extraneous noise.
- Insulation ability - very high.Minus - reducing it over time.It gradually loses ecowool to one fifth of its volume.
- Moisture absorption - high.This setting ranges from 9 to 15 percent.
- No seams at laying a solid way to finish - a definite plus.
- See material & gt; & gt;Ecowool - the technical characteristics and properties of the insulation
Heat insulator inorganic type
Now consider inorganic insulation types and their characteristics.For the manufacture of this type of material, the following minerals: asbestos, slag, glass, rocks.The result is glass wool, rock wool, cellular concrete heat-insulating type, foam glass, asbestos-based materials and ceramics, lightweight concrete based on expanded perlite or vermiculite.They can be made as rolls, mats, plates, and also have a particulate form.The leader in the production of mineral heat-insulating materials, of course, is a mineral wool.
1. mineral wool.
Mineral wool has two varieties: Slag and rock.For the production of the first of these are used slag formed during the casting of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.Stone wool also is based on the rocks: limestone, diabase, dolomite, basalt and others.Bases used for binding the component based on urea or phenol.And the latter is more suitable for building - mineral wool with the connecting element is less afraid of water than that which contains urea.
characteristics of mineral wool:
- Flammability - zero.Not only that - the material is also able to counteract the spread of fire.Therefore, it can be used as a means for protection against fire.
- sound reduction - very high.The mineral wool used as a sound insulator is very practical.
- Chemical passivity - high.
- Hygroscopicity - low.
- Shrinkage - is extremely low.Over time, the size of the material virtually unchanged, so manages to avoid thermal bridges.
- Water vapor permeability - high.This is a minus of insulation - in its application is necessary to lay a vapor barrier.
Attic insulated with mineral wool.
- See material & gt; & gt; Specifications basalt insulation, advantages, disadvantages and scope
3. Glass wool.
This material is made from the same raw materials as ordinary glass.However, waste and glass production are quite suitable for him.Unlike mineral wool, glass wool has thicker and longer fibers.Therefore, it is more elastic and durable.As mineral wool, it absorbs sounds, does not burn and is not exposed to aggressive chemicals.When heated, glass wool does not emit harmful substances.
- density (loosely) - no more than 130 kilograms per cubic meter.
- Thermal conductivity - 0.03 to 0.052 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- resistance to high temperatures - no more than 450 degrees.
- Corrosion resistance - high.
- Hygroscopicity - low.
And this is the most common wool looks.
4. Ceramic wool.
as a base material that has alumina, zirconia or silicon.It is made by blow or a centrifuge.Ceramic wool very resistant to high temperatures - more than even mineral wool.She is not afraid of aggressive chemicals, as well as virtually no deformation.
- Temperature resistance - more than 1,000 degrees.When heated above 100 degrees electrical insulator material becomes.
- Thermal conductivity at 600 plus degrees - from 0.13 to 0.16 watts per meter per Kelvin.
- density - less than 350 kilograms per cubic meter.
ceramic wool is here is a white color.
Heat insulator mixed type
Mixed insulation made of asbestos mixes, which have mica, dolomite, perlite or diatomaceous earth.Additional material introduced mineral components which serve to bind the substrate.The feedstock has the consistency of the dough sparsely.While it is not yet solidified, it is applied to the desired location and are drying.Make of this material and molding products: plates and shells.
Such a characteristic of this type of insulation, as heat is definitely on par.Heaters based on asbestos, and easily withstand 900 degrees.However, their numerous pores absorb moisture very well, so no waterproofing in this case can not do.It was not clear moments?