Economical heating system of a country house on the basis of solid fuel boiler, from "A" to "Z"

By Admin | Heating And Heaters
09 April 2016

The submission of the order covers all stages of an effective system of a country house heating solid fuel boiler.From the selection of equipment and calculation power, ending arrangement and rules of operation.

Heating country home solid fuel boiler, piping circuits


  1. Choosing the best type of solid fuel boilers and equipment
  2. Features installation and construction of the boiler
  3. use of heat storage and the calculation of its volume for the solid fuel boiler
  4. Various types and patternsbinding solid fuel boiler

Choosing the best type of solid fuel boilers and equipment

Currently, there are 4 basic types of solid fuel boilers.

traditional, it is a classic

stuffy moral construction, with an extremely low efficiency - less than 60%.It requires frequent maintenance, manual loading of fuel from 4 to 8 times a day.The main advantages are low cost, high reliability and extreme ruggedness.

Boilers, long burning

Their technology was developed in the 70s of the last century and brought to its logical conclusion the use of modern means of temperature control.The presence of circulating pumps forced injection makes this system a bit more efficient than the classical, but volatile.Without going into the features of the combustion process, we note that the loading of fuel into the boiler long burning can occur only in cycles - it is uneconomical for frequent temperature changes and very inconvenient to maintain.In combination with sophisticated circuit piping and the whole list of restrictions on kindling, making operation of this unit is very complex.

gasification boilers

relatively new type.The principle is based on heating the combustion of the pyrolysis gas which is released after the heat treatment of fuel.Manufacturers regulate the efficiency of boilers more than 90%, which is just a publicity stunt.When this calculation takes into account the efficiency of the energy that is spent on the process of pyrolysis.

Pyrolysis - the process of degradation of wood when heated without access of air, which is accompanied by the release of flammable gas.

Real KDP, technically perfect model of this type of boiler does not exceed 75-80%.And that given ideal operating conditions, which means fuel moisture content not exceeding 10%.By increasing the efficiency of useful heat humidity to plummet.There are additional risks arising in the course of operation.The biggest is the potential Vytok pyrolysis gas.When you boot the machine systematically fuels with high humidity is a rapid burning gasifier chamber.To prevent this, before each heating season, it is recommended to make the lining of the combustion chamber.

pellet type

most technically advanced solid fuel boiler, which can be selected.It enables complex control systems, process automation and security.Currently, such equipment is the most expensive, but the most technically perfect:

  • high efficiency - 85-90%;
  • full automation of loading of the fuel pellets;
  • flexible temperature control in the rooms;
  • high degree of operational safety.

Design and specifications pellet boiler:

Pellet boiler heating device
1. Bunker for pellets;2. Screw feed pellets;3. The electric motor of the screw;4. Connection for fuel supply to the burner;5. Dispenser supplying fuel to the burner;6. Power zoloochistitelya;7. The heat exchanger - a three-fold passing high-temperature gases gives a high efficiency;8. Control Panel;9. Control window presence of pellets in the hopper.

The principle of pellet boiler
Schematic principle of the pellet boiler heating.

pellets, which are used as fuels in these boilers.

In turn pellet boilers can be classified into three types according to the structure of the main cell type combustor.

flare burner

This is the least economical technology used in this type of equipment.The combustion of fuel takes place in the airstream created by a fan at temperatures up to 12000S.A distinctive feature of this technology is the flexibility and simplicity to the quality of fuel.

The flare burner for solid fuel boilers
When this type of burner, ensure the availability of additional metering chamber (highlighted in the figure) with petal check valve prevents reverse combustion.This will make the process more economical supply of pellets and safe.


With this method, pellets are fed into a hopper drive, and there are poured under its own weight on the grate.Below is pumped air that supports combustion.Irons can be fixed and moveable.The latter is used for the combustion of large fractions with high ash content.

The combustion chamber
combustion chamber, isolated supply valve pellets.

grate, it is also built in in cone pallet.

Retort burner

steel or cast iron bowl in which combustion occurs.The pellets are fed through a chute below the special feeding screw.Primary combustion air is supplied in the same way.The secondary air control and intensification of the process is fed through holes in the retort.

Videos: Feed pellets retort burner

Optional equipment for the boiler

Almost all current models have the following functions as standard:

1. Automatic ignition - optimum use of the high-temperature heat gun termozaschischennom failoverhousing.Just apply the metal or ceramic heating elements bulbs but they are less durable.Electrode method is very sensitive to humidity of the granules.

High-temperature dryer

2. control system .Basically, there are different types of thermostats for controlling the temperature of the coolant and oxygen sensors, which determine the amount of residual oxygen in the flue gases.Both detectors controls the power of the fan pushes air into the furnace.

Choosing the most effective model

Before you choose a solid fuel boiler, it is necessary to determine its power and technical criteria that it must meet, namely:

# 1.The certificate adaptation of all units of the boiler to operate in the territory of the Russian Federation.

# 2. Multiple robot mode with different types of pellets.

# 3. possible to use other kinds of fuel.

# 4. level of fuel quality requirements;

# 5. Availability WAN and the ability to enable economical "summer" operating mode;

# 6.Reliability long continuous battery life;

# 7. level playing noise in various operating modes:

  • standard heating;
  • enhanced heating with hot water;
  • start ignition;
  • feed pellets from inside and outside the bunker;

# 8. Ability to connect an additional external control;

# 9. Masshtabizatsiya temperature control facilities;

# 10. access and the amount of ash hopper;

# 11. presence of security systems

  • control reverse thrust;
  • superheat control coolant;
  • automatic emergency shutdown and fire.

Wiring and arrangement of boiler

For convenient operation of the installation of pellet solid fuel boiler must be carried out in a spacious room.When it is necessary to observe the placement parameters of technological indentation from walls and other surfaces that are listed in the data sheet.

In practice, there were cases when after six months of operation it was discovered that you can not open the ash pan to clean it.

main criterion of fitness room is a good natural or forced ventilation and chimney properly arranged.The most common scheme of the device chimney, you can see below:



Scheme A and B unit in the chimney of the house.As the exhaust duct using ventilation shafts arranged in a skinny wall.These channels must be isolated from the main system of natural ventilation of the house.


Scheme B - removal of the chimney of the boiler set up in the basement.



Schemes D and E of the external device is a specially built chimney of the boiler house or room at home.

In all cases, you must install the device chimney:

  • spark arrestor on the chimney;
  • transition sealing sleeve in the boiler room;
  • drainage device.

solid fuel boiler installation is recommended on the foundation cushion with heat-insulating layer.Indoors, you must install a special gas analyzer if there is no such standard model purchased.

Terms installation of pellet hopper

Also built the bunker, which has a small volume, and must often be filled with fuel, many owners are connected to the system of external tank of large volume.


for storage of pellets can use any container, the main condition - the tightness of the structure, if it is outside the heated space.Choosing the hopper volume, you must start from the standard 1 ton of pellets takes up to 2m3.height of the structure is not a critical variable.

Argued that the high-capacity lower layers of the pellets are crushed, it is not true.Quality construction pellets can withstand quite a lot of pressure.

tank should be located no further than 12m from the boiler.Allowed complexity of the design of the screw or the use of transshipment storage bins, but thus it is necessary to use only high-quality fuel.Otherwise trash falling into the furnace in large quantities would reduce efficiency and could damage the mechanisms of feeding and dosing of the boiler.

At the bottom of the silo cone under toplivozabora output, there should be an audit, for the systematic removal of dust.If the cone has a small cross-sectional area hangs compacted mass of granules under pressure.In this case, it is recommended to install a special device "screw turner."

The bunker is connected to the boiler
hopper connected to the boiler.

use of heat storage and the calculation of its volume for the solid fuel boiler

By using powerful heating device there is a possibility of overheating of the coolant.And although modern models are perfect automation, to prevent such a situation, it is advisable to use a special device heat accumulators.

Heat accumulators have the following functions:

  • automatic control of the distribution of the heated coolant in the system;
  • use as a buffer exchanger to create hybrid heating systems with several types of heaters;
  • some models can serve as hot water boiler, increasing the boiler efficiency by reducing the number of thrust adjustments.

table calculating the volume of the storage tank for solid fuel boilers

volume of the storage tank (liters) time hot water (H)
when the boiler output (kW)
20 25 30 35 40 15 50 55 60
500 1,2 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,4
1000 2,3 1,9 1,6 1,3 1,2 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,8
1200 2,8 2,2 1,9 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,1 1,1 0,9
1500 3,5 2,8 2,3 2,0 1,7 1,6 1,4 1,3 1,2
1800 4,2 3,4 2,8 2,4 2,1 1,9 1,7 1,5 1,4
2000 4,7 3,7 3,1 2,7 2,3 2,1 1,9 1,7 1,6
2400 5,6 4,5 3,7 3,2 2,8 2,5 2,2 2,0 1,9
3000 7,0 5,6 4,7 4,0 3,5 3,1 2,8 2,5 2,3
3500 8,1 6,5 5,4 4,7 4,1 3,6 3,3 3,0 2,7
4000 9,3 7,4 6,2 5,3 4,7 4,1 3,7 3,4 3,1
4500 10,5 8,4 7,0 6,0 5,2 4,7 4,2 3,8 3,5
Green marked the optimum volume for the respective powers of the boiler.

Different types of schemes and binding solid fuel boiler

There are many ways to connect the boiler and related equipment to the overall heating system at home.Consider the most common ones.

storage vessel serves as a hot water boiler

design buffer tank is a coil located inside the storage tank.Hot water which is inside, running water heats DHW.In the case of burn-off and the boiler heat accumulator allows to maintain an acceptable temperature in the room to 2 days.Provided that the feature is not used WAN.

for monitoring income and coolant temperature using automatic thermal mixing device:


  1. ball valve;
  2. thermometer;
  3. pump.

As the device is equipped with a check valve, automatic valve emergency natural circulation (in case of a power outage), built termoventelem and fitting.

principle of the device is as follows.Upon reaching a certain temperature coolant (780S), thermal valve opens the water supply from the drive.The temperature is kept at a predetermined level by adjusting the section of the return pass from the central heating system to the passageway.

Wiring solid fuel boiler to the storage tank dual purpose:

Driving strapping solid fuel boiler with dual-purpose heat accumulator
1. Safety group;2. The thermal storage tank;3. thermomixer;4. Expansion tank membrane-type;5. The valve feeding system;6. Circulation pump heating system;7. Radiators;8. The mixing three-way valve;9. Non-return valve;10. Circulation pump hot water system.

connect the storage tank and a separate hot water boiler Boiler capacity

passive heating domestic hot water depends on the number of consumers and power equipment is used.When piping pellet boilers should not be used polypropylene materials and designs.The temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger at peak load often exceeds the performance level of pipes made of polymer materials.It was not clear moments?