Types of toilets and their classification
first toilet with mechanical cistern was constructed for the Queen of England in 1596.But the lack of sewage systems and running water prevented the spread of the device.To the development of plumbing devices, the inventors have returned only in a half century, and the Englishman T. Tvayford one of its models, resembling a modern CD called Unitas, which means unity.Currently kinds of toilets are distinguished by the shape of a bowl, the method of installation (floor and overhead), type of drainage design and pairing with a sewage diversion.Further devices are available from a variety of materials.
- Types toilets for bowl
- Types toilets for washing away
- Types toilets on release into the sewage system
- material from which made the toilet
- Mounting methods
- toilet tank mounting options
- Smart toilets
to the toilet following requirements of the state standard:
- installation height - 400 mm;
- static load - 200 kg;
- volume of flush water - at least 6 liters;
- list of parameters reflecting the effectiveness of cleaning when flushing paper and plaster casts of faeces, the degree of rinsing the inside of the bowl.
These options are mandatory for all producers.The choice depends on the convenience of the toilet bowl shape, material, design and operating conditions.
Types of toilet bowl
Form bowl must provide comfort, hygiene and functionality.And although there are a few basic geometric forms, from different manufacturers are minor differences, which at first glance imperceptible.
The design of the bowl are:
advantage of the design is high hygiene due to the location of the funnel in the center of the bowl, which ensures thorough and immediate removal of the products defecation.The disadvantages include the probability of a burst.
design is a flat platform (shelf) for the accumulation of wastes, which is cleared only under the influence of a water jet.Bowls of this type are considered obsolete, and while sprinkling rule, due to low hygiene made now rare.
most common form, which is included in the design of a special projection, prevents the formation of splash and providing a bias removal products defecation from the walls of the device.
Besides operating parameters, the shape of the cup is to provide a thorough wash, to prevent the formation of salt deposits and water spray.These parameters determine the symbiosis of design and type of bowl flushing.
Types of toilets washout
Toilets flush in appearance depending on the direction of the water flow produces direct or cascade-type and back circular (shower type).Both designs have advantages and disadvantages.
Straight flush water stream is carried on one side of the bowl.This construction is durable, but does not provide high quality wash the entire surface.The advantage of the system is relatively low cost.The main drawbacks of addition is not full coverage of the container cup, is the presence of noise and splashing.
The organization of the system of circular flush, water jets are directed at different angles to the inner surface of the cup and move in different directions.This allows processing of up to 95% of the surface.Further design has low noise.
In rare cases, manufacturers are designing a custom sink, which provides for initial filling of the bowl with water and then a rapid descent.This method completely covers the inner perimeter of the toilet flush.The disadvantages include the construction expenditure of water, which may exceed 8 liters.
The average consumption of water in the drainage system according to the standard must be within 6 liters, but there are systems that use two modes - full and economical.In the second case, water consumption is reduced to 2 times.
Other selection criteria toilet depends on the installation conditions and technical capacity of sewerage systems.Regarding these parameters there is also a certain gradation these types of devices.
Forms for the production of toilet sewage system
By type of release toilets are vertical, horizontal and oblique tap.Select desired design depends directly on the location of the sewer entrance.
horizontal and oblique retraction angle distinguishes that of the first embodiment almost equal to 180 ° (parallel to the floor), and the second 145 - 140 ° with respect to the sewer inlet.The use of this type of toilet has become prevalent in recent decades, thanks to the laying of sewer communications in the plane of overlap, combined with a system of vertical risers.At the same time, the point of attachment bowl with an oblique issue, can not be used for mounting the device with horizontal diversion without the use of adapters - special connections.
Diagon Diagon release was distributed during installation stoyakovyh sewerage systems in apartment buildings in the 70s - 80s of the last century.
modern facilities designed for domestic use toilets with horizontal diversion
buildings in the first half of the last century, the most common was the use of a vertical release.
In today's construction industry the use of vertical issues prevalent in the Americas, due to the principles of installation of communications, which are mounted without reference to the walls.This method allows you to set Sanitaryware anywhere in the room and hide the pipes by lining the floor and ceiling materials.
material from which made the toilet bowl
first earned the recognition of contemporaries and won a gold medal at the London exhibition in 1884 was made of faience and equipped with wooden seat.Since the range of materials used for the production of sanitary articles greatly expanded.
Toilets faience have low strength and a relatively high porosity, making it difficult to clean and maintain the product.The use of the material in the present conditions of production is limited because the product is fragile and prone to chipping and cracking.The developed technologies, although these can improve performance, but compared with other materials used for manufacturing toilet, faience significantly inferior.
Porcelain Porcelain compacts compared to earthenware products have a long life, their surface is easy to clean, and strength can be used not only in individual toilets, but also in public places.The only significant disadvantage of porcelain but is significant cost due to high production costs.To reduce cost, widespread ceramic toilet bowls, which, unlike porcelain have a lower degree of surface glaze, a higher weight and less strength.
Steel and iron
Plumbing metal (except gold) refers to the classical type and installed in public toilets.Products are highly durable and easy to clean, but have a relatively high price.The least popular are the bowls made of cast iron, due to its heavy weight and low resistance of enamel to mechanical damage.
the photo bowl of stainless steel.
Toilets glass, artificial or natural stone are products category of "modern".These plumbing device is characterized by high price and exquisite appearance.Lack of strength for toilets made of glass and natural stone offset by the use of synthetic substitutes that are visually and tactile sensations little inferior to their natural counterparts.
Modern technologies allow to make bowls of reinforced acrylic.These products have a high strength, easy to maintain and have little or no porous structure, which is the highest measure of hygiene.The disadvantages of plastic plumbing devices is subject to movement caused by mechanical impact or heat.
means of fixing toilets
Depending on the method of installation, toilets are divided into overhead and floor, at what floor are divided into simple and installed close to walls (scaffoldings).
squat toilet differs slightly cost, and ease of installation.Outdoor plumbing devices recommended in the spacious dressing rooms.Installation is carried out on the anchor bolts and takes the least time.In addition such a construction leads to the dismantling of without harm to the floor.For installation in small washrooms used ladders (scaffoldings) design.
Pristennye toilets constructed with a special flushing system is not inferior to the compactness of the outboard models.
Among squat toilet bowl should be allocated a special form, which can be installed in a corner.He is not only a boon design, but also can be a very practical solution to organize bathrooms.
hanging toilet is designed for indoor installation of small area.The fastening system of these devices is designed for a load of 400 kg or more.The advantage is more space available for care of cleaning and saved space allows in a small space to equip a bathroom bidet.
Bowls fastened above the floor and mounted block or method framework.Frame construction provides a rigid fixation to the wall and the toilet floor and is located within a false wall.To hold the assembly necessary fittings and pipes.In contrast to this method, the block mounting means mounting the carrier frame to the wall.The installation depth is 150 mm.Space saving is possible only in the case of an existing "false" construction or device specific niches reinforced metal beams.
the photo hanging toilet in the classic version.
Options reservoir mounting
There are several accommodation options cistern, but depending on the interface with the toilet is separate and joint design type.
Separate toilet and tank
tank is mounted under the ceiling and connected to the toilet bowl with plastic or metal pipe.Managing discharge device is made by means of a lever which is extended flexible handle on a chain, rope or similar material.The structure was developed more than a century ago, and has a natural advantage as the high velocity discharge that provides a good work as compared with others.
Modern separate systems mounted with concealed cistern, which is in the open version does not have the aesthetic appearance, but there are miniature versions.
joint toilet and tank
joint design (CD) involves fixing the tank to the toilet bowl or directly on a monolithic shelf.This system is widespread, since it does not require any additional installation and requires minimal use of materials.Furthermore CD can be located irrespective of the distance to the walls and the possibility to use the vertical surface as the base substrate.
The most common variant of fastening the toilet tank.
It's kind of a kind combined with a toilet tank, but the tank is not attached to the toilet bowl by means of the Balts and the rubber seal and immediately cast the entire block.
This design is more robust and hygienic, but it is more cumbersome.
To execute design solutions or to increase the space in the toilet, modern flushing cisterns can be installed in a hidden form by using a false wall.Bachek should be made of plastic, and the installation of the device is performed by RAMS.Buttons or levers brought to the surface with the help of special mechanical extensions, which are provided by the design of the tank.
Most often such a system is used in the installation of wall-mounted toilets.
Toilets without cistern
The modern sanitary facilities, especially for devices using public toilets toilets with drainage system directly from the pipeline.Water is supplied from water and mechanically or electronically controlled valve.
Technology development has allowed developers to add functionality to toilet, which is implemented:
- The integrated bidet and shower;
- Automatic drain system;
- The heated seats;
- accompanied by music;
- The devices monitor the health of the human body, etc.
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