Types of brick - brick production Classification

By Admin | Construction Materials
22 April 2016

Brick as the most ancient building material is found almost everywhere, it is universal, beautiful, durable.Let us try to understand in detail what are the types of brick, depending on the material of manufacture, its scope, methods of manufacture and size.The format and structure of it is diverse, this material has passed the hard way in the history of civilization.

Types of bricks depending on the material manufacturing and service purpose


  1. Variety of brick, depending on the material manufacturing
  2. Classification of brick, depending on the intended use
  3. difference ceramic bricks according to the method of manufacture and the type of molding
  4. Types of bricksdepending on the nature of filling
  5. brick types and sizes

Variety of brick, depending on the material manufacturing

Each type is designed for its range of application or process.Both the first parameter by which to classify bricks, is the material from which it is made.


ceramic bricks are made from high-quality clay without i

mpurities marl and sulfates.Typically used raw materials with a minimum percentage of undecomposed composed of calcite.In early molding produce bricks, whereupon it is subjected to drying and calcination in an oven at a temperature of 1000 0C.By subjecting the bricks heat treatment is very important to avoid burnout or incomplete combustion.And in the first and in the second case, the quality of bricks will be much worse.Unburned brick looks bright, and will have burnt through shades of black.Good pottery has a semi-matt surface when struck it emits a distinctive ringing sound, and on the fracture has a porous structure.

Ceramic brick


lime brick is composed of purified quartz rocks (sand), and the very lime and moisture accounts for about 10% of the raw material.The percentage may vary from the composition and quality of the prepared mass.The main condition in the production of a good product is to clean the components of organic impurities, clay, manganese.Lime should not contain a lot of calcium oxide should not be perezhzhena.The manufacturing process takes place under high pressure.This type of brick is warmer than ceramic.It is used for the construction of walls and partitions.

Lime brick


The structure of this type of brick is usually includes a variety of screenings of calcareous rocks, marble, limestone and dolomite, formed during quarrying open way.These components make up 90% of the volume of the mass of material.Another indispensable component of the composition serves high-quality Portland cement.He plays the role of the main binder component for the volume of the prepared mass occupying 6-8%.Creating a brick made by pressing a special shape.Great value for the compact has the quality of the water itself, which is part of an agent of a chemical reaction.As a result, the compact obtained bricks ideal shape and size.Giperpresovanny bricks used for lining the walls of buildings.The very surface of the bricks can be smooth or have a texture under the so-called "broken stone".

giperpresovannui-kirpich-1-m giperpresovannui-kirpich-m

Classification of brick, depending on the intended use

In construction there are several types of brick, depending on the application.

Building or private

Building or ordinary bricks (GOST 530-2007 from 01.03.2008), used in setting up both internal walls, and external.Use these varieties can be brick, and to build a house, but with the subsequent warming or protecting the facade.This type of brick is far from a perfect view and can contain small chips, which, however, do not affect its durability.

ryadovoi-m ryadovoi2-m ryadovoi3-m ryadovoi4-m

Face bricks Face bricks

, (other names: front, front) - it is the ideal material even and has no defects.Maximum permissible deviations according to GOST is not more than 4 mm.length 3 mm.in width and 2 mm.height.As the liner can be used, ceramic, silicate or giperpresovanny brick.

relatively low cost of facing ceramic brick has advantages over the ornamental species for the price.Using this as a brick facing, be aware that it is used in the lowlands and wet climates, because of the low hygroscopic.Where the use of silicate species is unacceptable because of the hydrophobic properties of the product (moisture absorption).On the contrary, in the dry and hot lime-latitudes will be the best of all kinds of bricks, the building turns out stable to fluctuations in temperature, cool.

Among bricks distinguish two varieties - is textured and shaped bricks.

1. Texture brick , with smooth or jagged edges (broken stone) produced for facing facades of buildings and construction of fences.The edges of such an article can be both rolled, so smooth and without treatment.

fakturnui-kirpich1-m fakturnui-kirpich2-m fakturnui-kirpich3-m fakturnui-kirpich4-m

2. Contoured option different profile configurations for complex forms of masonry around windows, window sills, arches, pillars, fences, arbors.For example, types of building bricks shaped with rounded edges for angles, perfect for complex arrangement of building facades, namely angles.

Shaped bricks

Color range of facing brick types and ranges from large light yellow color to almost black.

Furnace, fireclay bricks

Furnace, fireclay bricks, this refractory product according to GOST 390-96, has a regular geometric shape, a granular basis and can be straw-colored, with reddish or brown patches.They serve for insulation and construction are subjected to constant high temperatures (furnaces, fireplaces).Forming a heat-resistant shell with the function of protecting the furnace from direct flames or red-hot coal.

main qualities required of such products: heat resistance, high cyclicality, low thermal conductivity.Grog has to withstand quite a long heating and many cycles to a temperature of 1000 ° C without loss of quality and its durability.Fireproof version produced necessarily correct form, there are also other formats such products (SHA-25 and SA-47) - wedge.

Kiln brick


ceramic clinker bricks made of refractory clay layers which are sintered to form a homogeneous mass.In choosing a clay mass as a feedstock for the production are carefully.Composition clay should be clean and pliable, it should be dry and the alkali metal salts, minerals unnecessary.During the heat treatment the clinker becomes highest strength and good density.Minor hygroscopic and simplicity to negative temperatures.Shale has suitable for this composition, it is elastic and refractory.

This brick has a variety of colors and textures.Therefore, clinker bricks used for walls, plinths, paving garden paths.

klinker1-m klinker2-m klinker3-m

difference ceramic bricks according to the method of manufacture and the type of molding

manufacturing ceramic brick is divided into two main types according to the method of molding.Brick-type plastic molding and bricks forming a semi-dry type.

1. Bricks plastic molding .Plastic molding involves several processes and made of plastic clay mass, humidity 15-21%.The main types of building bricks, produce extruded profile through various mouthpieces of screw presses.There are both vacuum systems and conventional.Corpulent stone is usually pressed on the equipment without vacuum and hollow options - on vacuum systems and presses.

2. Bricks semi-dry molding .Forming a semi-dry products are released from the same clay using the pressing and firing.But the main difference from the plastic method is that the raw materials had been adjusted to a certain moisture content (about 8-14%).It is then compressed to form, and only then fed to a rotary calcining kiln or a tunnel.Low humidity blanks, giving the finished products to maintain correct form and precise surface.

Qualitative types of bricks to build a house, mostly produced by plastic molding.They have smooth edges and smooth surfaces.

brick types, depending on the nature of the content

Depending on the filling of bricks can be perforated and solid.The choice will depend on the brick and the scope for the construction of the object which is supposed to use it.

Solid brick

As the name implies this brick does not have voids.The standard silicate products hollowness as long no more than 12-13% for solid option.The clinker product porosity of the material is up to 5%.Bearing walls erected only brick.

Corpulent ceramic and sand-lime brick

Hollow brick Hollow lime-sand brick hollowness rate ranges from 24-30%.Indicators of ceramic products are slightly different.The hollow can be up to 45%.Holes or camera perfectly hold heat, increasing the percentage of the total insulation of walls.There are decorative and facing brick with 4, 6, 8, or even ten cameras as the round and rectangular shape.Naturally, filling of bricks affect the strength of the entire structure is being built.Hollow versions are mainly used for the construction of partition walls.Types of bricks with cavities are not using the device of fireplaces and stoves.

Perforated brick

brick types and sizes

From finding a suitable material for cladding or wall construction, should pay special attention to the standards of the faces of the product.This will help to calculate step masonry and select your desired number.

The following 3 standard sizes of bricks:

name Size mm
Single 250h120h65 mm.
Bastard 250h120h88 mm.
Double 250h120h138 mm.

European standards are of such sizes:

DF-240x115x52 mm;

2 DF-240x115x113 mm;

NF-240x115x71 mm;

RF-240x115x61 mm;

WDF-210x100x65 mm;


Regardless of the size of each brick has the following three facets:

Name facets brick

1. bed - this is a working part of the product to which it is put.

2. stretcher of the stone - granite products.

3. poke - the smallest face of the product.

At the end of topics I would like to add a few tips for choosing the brick products.

The first thing to do when choosing a brick, to find out his brand, strength, resistance to external influences.Explore already constructed buildings or buildings of it.Find out what time the building is operated, there is no peeling, cracks in walls, corners.

second, and probably the most important rule, inspect the manufacturing or storage before purchase for a fight, marriage, size, residues of unsold lots.Appearance and tidiness of production can tell a lot about the quality.

  • reviews silicate brick
  • Reviews of ceramic bricks
  • reviews giperpresovannom brick
  • Reviews of facing bricks

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