Technical characteristics of ceramic bricks
baked clay bricks used in construction since ancient times, and the buildings of this material is characterized by an enviable strength and durability.Ceramic brick, characteristics of which are at a high level, is made from some kinds of clay.Performance characteristics are determined by the quality of its raw materials and strict observance of production technology.
- composition, production and varieties of ceramic bricks
- density ceramic bricks
- thermal conductivity of ceramic bricks
- Water vapor permeability
- Fire resistance
- Ecological ceramic
- size and geometric accuracy
- Special kinds of ceramic bricks
- Transport and storage of ceramic bricks
- Video: Advantages and disadvantages of ceramic bricks
composition, production and varieties of ceramic bricks
Making this type of building material is a complex process consisting of several stages.Currently used two tec
1. Plastic method involves forming a block of clay mass with a water content of about 17-30%.To implement this process using a belt press, and then dried bricks in a specially equipped camera or under a canopy.At the last stage, he fired in an oven or tunnel, the cooled product is placed in the warehouse.
2. dry pressing technology.Initial weight thus has a moisture content in the range 8 to 10%.The molding process is carried out block by compaction under high pressure up to 15 MPa.
Brick production is carried out in strict accordance with national standards GOST 7484-78 and GOST 530-95.In preparation for the mass used glinoobrabatyvayuschie machine rollers, runners, and pug-mill.Forming brick modern plants occurs at high belt presses.The homogeneous structure of the blocks and the absence of voids is achieved by using shakers.
Drying of raw bricks made chamber or tunneling method.In the first case, the batch of products loaded into a specially equipped room, where the temperature and humidity changes for a given algorithm.In the second embodiment, the trolley with raw consistently held through the zones with different parameters of the microclimate.
brick firing takes place in special furnaces under certain conditions.Temperature mode is selected depending on raw material composition and its peak values are in the range from 950 to 1050 ° C.The firing time is chosen in such a way that, on completion of the process mass part of a vitreous phase in the structure of the brick reached 8 - 10%.This figure provides the maximum mechanical strength of the product.
raw material for the production of bricks is clay fines, which is extracted in open-pit quarries with single bucket or bucket wheel excavators.To ensure proper product quality is only possible when using mothers with uniform composition of minerals.Plants for the manufacture of bricks are being built near the fields in order to reduce transport costs and a reliable supply of mineral raw materials companies.
The main types of ceramic bricks vary in purpose and divided into ordinary (other names: the construction or normal) and the front.
soldier ceramic bricks.
Facing ceramic bricks.
Facial depending on process performance can be of several types:
ceramic brick, in addition, may be monolithic or hollow, and the surface of the stretcher and bonder made smooth or grooved.At the same time the product of one species often combine several features so ordinary block made full-bodied or cavities.Masonry stoves and fireplaces made of a special fire-resistant (refractory) bricks and paving used for its special form - clinker.
Ceramic brick and its structure.
density ceramic bricks
physico-chemical properties and technical parameters of the product is largely dependent on the internal structure.One indicator that clearly characterize named quality ceramic bricks, is density.It depends on the fractional composition of raw materials, the variety and the porosity of building brick.
data density and other indicators of ceramic bricks are shown in the table:
|Variety brick||average density porosity||Brand strength|| |
|kg / m3||%|
|soldier corpulent||1600 - 1900||8||75 -300||15 - 50|
|Soldier Hollow||1000 - 1450||6 - 8||75 - 300||15 -50|
|Face||1300 - 1450||6 - 14||75 - 250||25 - 75|
|Face engobed||1300 - 1450||6 - 14||75 - 250||25- 75|
|Clinker||1900 - 2100||5||400 - 1000||50 -100|
|Fireclay||1700 - 1900||8||75 - 250||15 - 50|
density ceramic bricks determines its class, which is indicated by a code number in the range from 0.8 to 2.4.The above figure represents the weight of one cubic meter of building material, expressed in tonnes.In total there are six classes of products, the introduction of this indicator considerably simplifies records management in the construction industry.
Knowledge of such a measure, as the density is necessary for settlement and design work and to determine the limit loads on foundations and load-bearing elements of the building.Homogeneous brick structure provides it with one hand, a high mechanical strength, other - low insulating properties.In case of application for the erection of the building monolithic brick should take additional measures to wall insulation.
In order to reduce the weight of the product and its thermal conductivity there are left cavities of different shapes.Hollow can be both ordinary and facing ceramic bricks.The shape and depth of the holes is given by the technology and can be very different: round, rectangular or slit.Void in the body of the product are placed vertically or horizontally, in some species they are made with through other closed with one of the parties.
towards the hole with respect to the plane of the load has a noticeable effect on the mechanical strength.For example, bricks with horizontal voids can not be used in masonry bearing walls, perhaps its destruction under the weight of the building structure.In the manufacture of hollow blocks save up to 13% of raw materials, which reduces their cost and makes it more accessible.
improved thermal characteristics of bricks is possible by increasing its porosity.For this purpose, the crude mixture was added to a certain amount of charge: chopped straw, peat or sawdust.Inclusions in the firing process are burnt and the pores are formed in the body, filled with dry air.This fact has a considerable influence on the thermal conductivity of the construction material.
corpulent ceramic brick.
hollow ceramic bricks with rectangular voids.
hollow ceramic bricks with rectangular voids.
hollow ceramic brick with round cavities in the middle.
thermal conductivity of ceramic bricks
physical properties of ceramic brick is largely dependent on its internal structure.Insulation products are characterized by the possibility of thermal conductivity.Its value indicates the quantity of heat needed to change the temperature at 1 ° C with a wall thickness of 1 m. The coefficient of thermal conductivity is used in the design of the building in the calculations the thickness of the outer walls.
There is a direct correlation between the density of ceramic bricks and insulating properties.
According to the index of the product can be assigned to one of five groups of thermal conductivity:
corpulent ceramic brick thermal insulation characteristics, which is relatively low is usually used for the construction of load-bearing structures.For walls built of such material needs additional insulation.The use of hollow or slit products can largely reduce the thickness of walling in low-rise buildings.The presence of dry air in the voids greatly reduces heat loss through the walls.
presence of pores in the ceramic brick can facilitate the penetration of water vapor in its structure.Coefficient of moisture absorption depends on many factors, primarily on the density and other characteristics of the material.For solid value of its products ranges from 6 to 14%, which is fairly low figure.This positive effect on strength and insulating characteristics of the brick.
preservation brick buildings and structures depends on the stability of the heating.Lowering the room temperature to the level of the street contributes to the penetration of moisture into the pores and the accumulation of water.Crystallization it during freezing causes the formation of stresses and micro-cracks, which can gradually erode the material of building structures.Directly to the ability of moisture absorption is related indicators such as water vapor permeability.Water vapor permeability
In any habitable room humidity increases as a result of human activity.The regulation of this parameter involves brick walls that are able to actively absorb and release vapors into the environment.The indicator for the ceramic brick is at the level of 0.14 - 0.17 mg / (m * h * Pa), and this is enough to create a comfortable environment in the apartment, home or office.
water vapor permeability of the material is determined by a special factor.This indicator characterizes the density of the flow penetrating through the surface area of 1 square.m for one hour.
comparison table shows the vapor permeability coefficients for different materials:
Ceramic brick is widely used in the construction of buildings in different climatic zones of the country.The ability of a material to resist low temperatures is called frost.In accordance with the national standard quantification of this indicator is defined cycles.In fact, the number of years that is able to withstand the correct construction of the wall.
Frost ceramic brick is specified as an alpha-numerical code from 50 F to 100 F. This means that when done correctly, masonry and constant heating in the winter period of operation of the building will be from 50 to 100 years.Ceramic brick is highly resistant to external influences and extreme fluctuations in temperature.
Fire resistance Fire safety of buildings depends on the ability of building materials resistant to high temperatures and open flames.Ceramic bricks relates to non-combustible construction materials, and it depends on the type of fire.This figure is determined by the time it is able to withstand the wall thickness of a minimum prior to its destruction.
Ceramic brick has a maximum fire to other construction materials in excess of 5 hours.For comparison, concrete is able to withstand fire no more than 2 hours and less than 30 minutes Metal.An important parameter of the fire resistance of a material is the maximum temperature which it can withstand.For ordinary brick, it is 1400 ° C, and for refractory or clinker greater than 1600 ° C.
This building material characterized by the ability to extinguish the acoustic vibrations over a wide frequency range.Insulating properties of ceramic bricks comply with SNIP 23-03-2003 and GOST 12.1.023-80, GOST 27296-87, GOST 30691-2001, GOST 31295.2-2005 and GOST R 53187-2008.Ceramic bricks excellent acoustic oscillations extinguish.
Ceramic brick is recommended by specialists for the construction of residential, public and industrial buildings.The products can be used for the construction of the following facilities:
- soundproof partitions;
- special booths for monitoring and remote control of technological processes;
- acoustic screens (screens).
Index sound insulation ceramic brick is taken into account during the acoustic calculations of buildings and individual rooms.This takes into account the sound power level and location of radiation sources.The wall of the hollow ceramic brick has the best characteristics for a given parameter, rather than a similar building blocks of a monolithic structure.
However, the device thick brick walls to increase the sound insulation is not very effective.This is because as the thickness of the wall is twice the level of sound insulation is increased by only several decibels.
Currently, much attention is paid to the influence of materials on human health and the environment.Ceramic brick is a product that is made from natural raw materials: clay by high-temperature firing.This material does not emit harmful and toxic substances in the operation of residential and industrial buildings and structures.
Brick is recommended for the construction of virtually all types of buildings:
- preschool, educational and medical institutions;
- and low-rise apartment buildings for year-round;
- catering establishments;
- production facilities and more.
With regard to ecology, this material is able to compete with natural wood and natural stone.In the premises, built of ceramic bricks, formed a healthy living environment, security and health of children and adults.
size and geometric accuracy
Manufacturers of construction materials offer a wide range of different types of blocks.Total industry produces almost five sizes of ceramic bricks in the following formats:
- normal or single;
- modular single;
- thickened with horizontal holes.
dimensions of ceramic bricks are determined by the requirements of national GOST 530-2007, which corresponds to the European standard EN 771-1: 2003.Data for convenience tabulated:
|product names||designation||Length mm||Width||Thickness|
|soldier or a single||KO||250||120It was not clear moments?|