More and more Russians now aspire to equip his villa, cottage or apartment, even a private sauna, to be able to enjoy it at any time.However, in order to remain a sauna, a source of joy and not cause trouble when its design and the device must be remembered that the high temperatures (in the sauna is usually held to 120 ° C) require a careful attitude.So, one of the most common causes of fire in the sauna is a physical-chemical process of separation from the heated timber of flammable gas (pyrolysis of wood).In the sauna room are all conditions for the pyrolysis of wood, and a dedicated gas capable of spontaneous combustion.Another common cause of fires in the sauna - the wrong choice and installation of electri
However, fortunately, modern technology, to adopt the construction industry, allow you to completely get away ...
law to help
Unlike baths, saunas often not located in a separate building, and are part of an apartment house.Obviously, in this case the fire threatens the entire structure of the sauna, but get rid of a large part of the risk is possible, given the rules legally enshrined fire plan and accommodation facilities baths and saunas in buildings for other purposes.For example, one of the rules relates to an apparatus ventilation: it involves the installation of fire dampers in the ducts of general ventilation systems serving the sauna room, at the intersection with air fire barrier.This is necessary in order to prevent the spread of smoke in premises in the event of fire.
when using saunas cottages added a requirement on equipment sauna stove with a factory-built and automatic protection switching off after 8 hours of continuous operation until cool and automatic protection to turn off the oven at a temperature of 110 ° C sauna.To finish the steam bath must be used deciduous wood.When the device sauna in the basement should provide them with exit directly to the outside of the building.Sauna should be fenced off from the rest of the buildings by fire partitions and ceilings.
snip "Residential buildings" allows you to place individual saunas and in apartment buildings.There is also a set of operating rules: steam bath volume should not exceed 24 m3, shall be equipped with a sauna, special prefabricated oven for heating with automatic shut-off when the temperature reaches 130 ° C and 8 hours of continuous operation, the furnace should be removed from the walls of the steam bath is not less than0.2 meters above the furnace relies install fireproof heat-insulating shield and vent - equipped with fire-retardant valve.
It is also important to remember that in any sauna wiring should be done hidden, is strictly forbidden wiring with metallic shells in metal pipes and metal sleeves, and the installation of switches and plug sockets, switchgear and controls furnace heaters sauna.Protection suitable cables must be heat-resistant and designed for the maximum allowable temperature in the sauna.Heater control unit should be placed in a dry place before the steam bath.
Compliance with these rules in the design and construction of your sauna will make it safe.However, during the operational phase will also need to adhere to certain rules.The sauna room is prohibited:
- left unattended plugged in electric stove;
- install heating elements are not prefabricated;
- exploit furnace-heater with thermostat faulty or disabled;
- use in the sauna room electric heating appliances;
- close the ventilation gap between the door and the floor with any object;
- produce clothes drying on the fence the stove or in the immediate vicinity of it.
choose the right materials
properly designed taking into account all standards a sauna is quite safe, but it is important to remember that not all materials are equally suitable for its construction.Very important is the choice of material for the walls of the device, because high-quality thermal insulation of walls and ceiling - one of the basic requirements for the sauna.The walls of the sauna, as a rule, are timbered or frame type with thermal insulation, but given the fact that the sauna is often placed inside the building, it can be built with brick or concrete walls, trimmed inside the boards with a vapor barrier.By themselves, brick walls of the same thickness as the log frame and have higher thermal conductivity and therefore retain less heat.Heat loss of a brick and timbered walls will be equal to, if we increase the thickness of the masonry up to 52 cm.It follows that if the walls of your sauna are made of bricks, they will need additional insulation.
On the contrary, it is best to frame walls retain heat with aggregates of stone wool: their thermal conductivity three times less (ie, they retain heat better) than even wood.When the thickness of the thermal insulation of 10 cm of heat loss to the environment from 1 m2 framing walls will be 1.8 times less than 1 m2 log wall and almost 4 times less than 1 m2 brick.
Stone wool can be used not only as a filler frame walls, but also as insulation brick.The advantage of rockwool is that it not only is an excellent thermal insulator, but also fireproof.This material is made of natural stone, so its fibers can withstand temperatures of about 1000 ° C.Thus, stone wool acts as a fire barrier, which gives more time to extinguish the fire and evacuation of people in the room and reduces the damage caused by them.Stone wool refers to a group of non-combustible materials.No coincidence that for reasons of fire safety it is allowed to use in the construction of buildings with high requirements for fire safety: kindergartens, schools, hospitals, as well as fire protection.
As stone wool is the best suited for the insulation of floors, which is especially important if a sauna is located in the basement or on the cold basement.The floor in the room where will be installed lockers saunas, must be covered with tiles - the requirement of fire safety, but also, tiles and sanitary performs a function, because solid flooring least accumulate bacteria, it is easy to clean and disinfect.
Now let's talk about the choice of material for cladding the sauna.The quality and properties of wood depends not only comfort and convenience, but the sauna and fire.Russia has a building code prohibits the use of conifers in the construction of facilities such as bath and sauna.Hardwood commonly used for cladding saunas linden and alder.No matter at what wood you stop the selection, it will require treatment of fire impregnation.On such treated impregnated wall fire will spread much more slowly, which greatly increase the chances of quickly extinguish the fire and minimize the damage caused to them.
Here are a few points that you should pay attention.The degree of fire stability of the wall depends on the amount spent impregnation: wood, impregnated with a surfactant, capable of withstanding fire no more than 10-15 minutes.Matter and the conditions under which will be steep.Thus, for optimal processing of wood having a humidity of 25%, the impregnating composition must be heated to 70-80ºS.In order to increase the degree of impregnation of wood on its surface make special tattoos.
The traditional Finnish sauna stove, of course, stoked with wood.Indeed, the wood stove creates a special microclimate and comfort, but it has its drawbacks.The room is equipped with a conventional wood stove, heats up quickly, but just as quickly cools down.To keep warm, it is possible to impose a furnace stone oven, but we must remember that properly lined wood stove can cause fire.Because of this, the last moment in modern construction increasing popularity acquire electric stoves - modern analogues woodburning stoves.They also heat up quickly, but more compact, do not become clogged with ash and coals and allow you to set a constant temperature, which in itself is working on fire safety throughout the sauna.
Sauna will be out of the threat of fire, strictly if you soak a safe distance from the stove to combustible surfaces: for example, wood.Typically, subject to the following minimum safe distances: the back and sides - to the walls, forward - to regiments (two distances - shelves above and below the upper edge of the oven), up - to the ceiling.These distances are given in the instructions for installation and operation, they own each model heater, depending on its type and power.When these distances additional insulation between the wooden wall and sauna electric heater is not required.Even more, illiterate perform additional insulation of wooden wall saunas in some cases may cause a fire.When selecting
sauna stove you must adhere to a specific model the volume of the sauna.If you use an oven at power, a sauna will not have time to warm up to the desired temperature, use the larger capacity of the furnace significantly increases the risk of fire, because the danger of combustible components overheating sauna.
great importance for the construction of saunas and baths have chimneys.On the one hand, they must ensure traction, thanks to which the smoke will not get into the room, because the products of combustion is very dangerous to health.On the other hand, furnace flues do not give the sauna or cool bath, maintaining the optimal temperature inside the steam room.In terms of fire safety the most important point in the construction of the chimney is its insulation.Generally, saunas are built of wood, but even if it is made of brick or natural stone, its trim - wooden.Therefore, during the chimney through the ceiling, be aware that it can be heated to a very considerable heat, which may risk fire wood pieces.Under these conditions, the choice of material used for insulation of the chimney, is of great importance.The range of materials used for these purposes is very wide, but they differ in their characteristics: thermal conductivity, durability, etc.Among modern materials, the most widely used for pozharoizolyatsii chimneys is to provide rock wool Rockwool.Also, importantly, rock wool has a long life - about 50 years.
fire extinguishing system in the sauna
If a fire broke out nevertheless, it is important to time to take action to eliminate it.Experts recommend at least equipped with a sauna fire extinguisher, but often this is not enough.In the upper zone separating the steam room, as well as next to the stove from wood edges should be installed temperature sensors, semi-detached from the device (thermostat), which disconnects power from the electric heaters in the case of raising the temperature to 110 ° C.Even with such a system should exist in a sauna with an electric shield plugs machine that allows allows you to de-energize "one touch".For effective warning fire alarm system should be equipped with a sauna, with several options you can choose.Relatively expensive system consists of sensors, sirens, self-priming fire extinguishers.Another option - Installation of quick fire suppression, for example, detector-starters.These devices capture the appearance of an open flame and begin to start the process of extinguishing powder at the same time via the switch sends a signal to the emergency services 01.
in favor of fire alarm tells easy and quick process of its installation, and ease of use.Of course, for her, as well as other fire prevention measures, additional funds are spent, but they are not comparable with the possible damage in case of fire.
Another very important "fire" moment is also related to ventilation.To glowing air from the sauna did not get into the other rooms of the building, the ventilation system is put fire valve that automatically closes when a certain temperature is exceeded, or when the fire-extinguishing system.
All these security rules, which at first glance may seem too strict and numerous, fairly easy to follow thanks to the use of modern materials and technologies.Sauna gives us joy and renewal, and if it is well-designed and equipped, you can be sure that your holiday will not be marred by anything.