Earlier stairs made prikolochivaya hastily to the inclined wooden bowstring stage, allowing to climb to the top floor, drawing all four limbs and bending the head.Exclusive ladder a little less than the fireplace of a copyrighted work, and installation of finished modular design in China, as a rule, no less ready to stoves with chimneys.
can purchase wood stages, risers, stringers, balusters and handrails in the shop building products and try to make a ladder on their own or to recruit carpenter.But this is only if it is a single-span straight ladder and the height of floors (from floor to floor) does not exceed 2.7 m. In all other cases, there are a lot of nuances that have to be taken into account.
Unfortunately, the one who is designing your home and previously had only deal with one-storey city apartment, sometimes does not attach special importance of steps the issue, postponing his decision until later, when more difficult to correct mistakes.And, alas, not only his mistakes: sometimes the proj
Before and after construction
first axiom: location and basic characteristics of the stairs must be carefully calculated directly on the design and development stage floor plan.After all, even small shifts make fully redraw sometimes all a planning volume.Be sure to ask the designers of good faith ladder to enter into the plan and draw in the context of the building (when it comes to democratic suburban house, this is sometimes forgotten, leaving an opening for the construction of 2 x 2 m).Tighten your spatial imagination, mentally walk around the stairs, think for, not too steep steps, and if not where banging his head.We speak about it with skill: sometimes in the projects of country cottages found such that wonder.Two common extremes ladder "eats" too large area (for example, almost half of the hall or living room), or under the banner of saving space is laid a narrow, steep and awkward turns.A special point to which attention should be paid is the point of exit stairs in a low and a spacious attic with sloping walls - they usually rise when no one wants to stretch his head.
now rule two: designed, discussed and at the time forgot.While there is a construction and interior trim, stairs of fine wood or product design art style hi-tech glass stairs in the house is not the place: of course, will be more convenient to drag the top drywall and bags with dry mixes, but expensive materials risk of being hopelessly corrupt builders.At this time we will have to restrict "makeshift" of second-rate lumber.It should be safe and strong enough to withstand the weight of workers and dragged materials.Not bad, if step stages, the slope and the location of the "working" ladders of wood match the projected construction: this first fitting allows for ergonomic options.Temporary stairs shall serve until the end of construction.
Ideally, the installation of a stationary start, and finish when completed, and large pieces of furniture on the top floor have already placed.
dominant in the interior of the living room
How to enter into the interior stairs?Here, the practice of private domestic housing does not stand still.In the recent past buildings that are on the architectural and planning features are not far removed from typical urban houses with a strong articulation of the floors, Stairs started in the hallway or in a separate room - as in the classical entrance of an apartment building.
more cost-effective option for country house - odnomarshevaya wooden staircase without risers and heavy hatch in the ceiling so that the heat from the furnace did not go away in the attic.Even more simple - an open staircase to a wooden outer box (locker).In recent years, planning trends have changed dramatically: to replace the cold attic, where guests were allowed to spend the night, came settles owners of private zones - a bedroom and children's rooms (and the guests are now more often assign a special bedroom near the living room on the first floor).
From the construction, allows to move from floor to floor, the staircase turns in the dominant stylistic, Chief (along with a fireplace), a piece of furniture two tiers of windows living room or a spacious hall.If volume allows, the ideal - the line without bends, with wide steps down zabezhnymi.But this is not an axiom.
classic type of stairs - marching, the steepness of 30-45 degrees.Here all tested for centuries: flight of stairs consists of steps, which are attached to sloping joists (stringers or bowstring).If more than ten steps, the march for the convenience of lift is divided into two parts (or more), divided intermediate sites.The most simple marches - straight.However, they may be located along the L-shaped walls, and the U-shaped pier.Open staircases combine high reliability and excellent aesthetic qualities.With this design, you can freely combine materials such as wood steps with wrought iron railings.A rich history, dating back to the times of knights' tournaments are also circular and spiral staircases are a fan of steps attached to a central pole - pole.They look very elegant and bright, take up very little space, becoming a highlight of the interior.But!Revolves around the post from morning till night, even the kids hard and people aged more so.Overall things on a ladder is not dragging.So now if you use spiral staircase and then mostly as an adjunct to a more comfortable basic.
Inspired desire to build something sverhoriginalnyh, we can not forget about the households.If the home has small children, in addition to conventional hangers, should take care of the railing parallel lower.Seniors will appreciate if handrails duplicate and on the wall.Instead of one balusters on each step can be to design two, but thinner, so that through them the palisade not kid climbed.Finally, for the steps it is not necessary to use materials which are easy to slip on.And if you really want, you should stick the strip, preventing slip.For safety you need to know the basic rules of good ladder.Here they are:
- first rule is easy and safe ladder - the correct ratio of the width of the tread (the reference surface stage) and her height.To the stairs did not have to climb, seeds or down backwards, this ratio is tied to the average human step (approximately 630 mm).You can use the default values, such as 300/150 mm 290/170 mm.But it is not always possible to apply in practice.If the first or the last step does not correspond to the selected ratio, when climbing or downhill increases the chance to get off and stumble.The most correct - use appeared in the XVII century, the so-called formula Blondel: 600 mm & lt;tread width + twice the height of the riser Overall, this rule works with a rather shallow stairs (400/200 mm), for example, on a hillside in the park.The upper limit is considered to be 48 degrees (200/220 mm).
- comfortable and safe slope stairs 30-40 degrees.With a lack of space is allowed to increase the angle of 45-50 degrees, but then have to go down backwards.On
- tread (walking surface stage) should calmly placed the 45th leg size.Standard level treads are 280-300 mm.The minimum width of level - 700 mm.If you want the front stairs of your house could disperse two guest, the width of a step shall be not less than 1200 mm.
- Each march must be at least three stages (otherwise tempted to "skip" them, because this design is no longer perceived as ladder) and not more than fifteen steps (to an elderly man was able to make a break when climbing).
- At each rung of the ladder without the risk of hitting his head on the lintel must be placed in full growth of at least two-meter man.
- for stairs in three or more steps must be done handrail height of 900 mm.If you live in the house the elderly, should be placed handrails on both sides of the stairs.If you have children, the uprights shall be located not less than 150 mm, even better - two on each stage.In addition, young children in the house - this is the reason to abandon Fine designs where the space between the steps are not covered risers.
- If you really want to use the stairs beautiful, but slippery stuff (Polished stone or glass) should be pasted on top of anti-band.
- Particular attention is the first and last steps: they must be clearly visible.If the living room or hall is used to design zabezhnymi steps, it should not become an obstacle that will always have to bypass at movements.Well, when the lower steps of the warm wood can be to sit down to admire the play of flames in the fireplace.But that's another topic.