effective thermal protection of buildings is inextricably linked to their energy efficiency - the value of specific consumption of thermal energy for heating the house during the heating season.Communication provides item 4.1 SNiP 23-03-2003, stating that "the construction of buildings must be in accordance with the requirements for thermal protection ... with a minimum of thermal energy for heating."The lower the value of the specific heat consumption, the more safe in terms of energy efficiency is the building.
Thus, the modern home should provide a warm comfortable environment for human habitation, and, at the same time, the minimum consumption of energy for heating.To realize the concept of a warm home practice allows the use of the aggregate volume-planning decisions, building materials and technologies.Solutions that improve the thermal and energy efficiency of buildings, and will be discussed further.
thermal efficiency of residential buildings is largely dependen
One way to solve the problem is to design so-called "shirokokorpusnyh" houses with improved 15-25% coefficient of compactness.In addition to reducing heat losses, this approach ensures the preservation of a sustainable climate inside the building.Additional heat loss can be associated with a complex geometry of the facades: the presence of the projections, projection in the facade and other architectural elements increases the area of the walling and thus reduces the thermal efficiency of up to 15% compared to a building with a smooth facade.
no less important in terms of thermal efficiency is the height of the building.According to specialists, high-rise residential buildings (floors 17-25) are at high wind loads, which cause increased heat loss in the premises located on the windward side.According to calculations, the optimum in terms of thermal efficiency is the height to 16 storeys.
Speaking of volumetric-planning solutions that can help reduce heat loss, not to mention the relationship between the length and width of the room.It is proved that the square shape of the room is much worse than confront the external thermal effects compared with extended premises.However, the latter often suffer from a lack of daylight.Therefore the optimal ratio of the length and width of the room - 3/2.In the premises, the design of which is observed this proportion is maintained more stable temperature conditions.
improving the thermal protection also contributes to the glazing of loggias and balconies.The disadvantage of this solution is to reduce by 30% light rooms with daylight and a significant deterioration in the terms of ventilation.Thermal efficiency of the house depends on the area of glazing.According to the SNIP 23-03-2003 it should not exceed 18% of the area enclosing structures.Otherwise, the heat loss can increase several times.
improve the thermal efficiency contributes to the orientation of the facades on the sides of light in accordance with the existing in this area wind rose.For example, to reduce heat loss in buildings in the Moscow region, it is desirable to minimize the glass area of the northern facade of the building, and on the south side, on the contrary, increase it possible to use solar energy.
According to experts in the field of construction of thermal physics, members of non-profit partnership "ABOK" outer walls homogeneous structure does not meet modern standards of thermal protection of buildings.The alternative is a multi-layer construction of the walls with effective insulation material, thermal conductivity which must not exceed 0.06 W / m K.
To improve the thermal characteristics of walling of buildings under construction have won great popularity facade systems with external plaster layer.In systems of this type of strict requirements for insulating materials.In addition to the low thermal conductivity, which was already mentioned above, the insulation must comply with fire safety requirements SNIP 21-01-97 "Fire safety of buildings and structures."
following requirement - peel strength layers of not less than 15 kPa - due to the need to support the weight of the plaster layer in a complex temperature and humidity conditions.In addition, insulation plaster facade design of the system must have a high resistance to moisture, as moisture penetrating into the interior of the heat-insulating material reduces its thermal performance.
an important role in thermal protection also plays efficiency window systems, which depends on two factors.One of them - this tightness in the closed position of the window.Significant heat losses in existing buildings built in the last century, related to the infiltration of hot air from the premises through the gaps arising due to gapping the sash to the frame.Design of modern window systems eliminate the possibility of gaps, with double continuous loop seal tightly adjacent to the frame, preventing the flushing.
Another factor affecting the thermal efficiency of translucent structures - is the thermal conductivity of the glass.Ordinary glass has a high heat transfer coefficient (5.8 W / m K), conducive to rapid cooling of the room air in the cold season.One solution is to use double-glazed windows with low-emissivity glass having heat-reflecting properties.As an example Glasbel Thermobel glazing with low-emission Low-E glass and argon filled inner chamber, the heat transfer coefficient of which amounts to only 1.3 W / m K
additional increase thermal protection may be associated with the profile system with increased up to 70mm wide profile.Thus, the profile system KBE expert with five internal air chambers has a coefficient of thermal resistance of 0.81 m 2 ° C / W, which is 15% above the average standard profile systems width 58-60 mm.
on thermal efficiency of newly constructed buildings is largely influenced by the design of ventilation systems, which on average account for 15% of total heat loss due to infiltration of heated air in the cold season.
One of the solutions to the problem of light is the installation of ventilation grilles with changeable section to regulate the mode of ventilation depending on current needs.With their help, you can greatly reduce the amount of heat loss during the cold season.For effective control range of the air through the cross section of the lattice should be between 10 to 100%.
even more effective solution is to recycle the heat evacuated through the air ventilation system.This is possible in systems of mechanical ventilation where air is forcibly taken from areas with a high moisture content and contaminants through the exhaust valves.In the future, through a system of air ducts evacuee air enters the heat exchanger where no direct contact of the heat gives a similar amount of outdoor fresh air, which is then fed into the living areas of the house or apartment.
heat exchange efficiency is determined by their structure and can vary from 45 to 90%.The most widely used plate heat exchangers (recuperators) with a heat transfer efficiency of 70%.In addition to improving thermal efficiency, mechanical ventilation system with heat exchanger provides a significant increase in energy efficiency of the building.
However, despite the advantages of this solution, there are some restrictions on its use.These include the need for a volume-planning decisions for placement of heat exchangers, air ducts and the creation of additional protection of heat exchangers from freezing at temperatures below -10 ° C.The most significant difficulty is the cost for the purchase and installation of equipment
addition, the design of ventilation systems for high-rise buildings - a rather complicated and time consuming process.For these reasons, experts recommend the use of this solution in the construction of single-family and low-rise residential buildings (7 floors), where it can be implemented in a simpler design concept.
As for residential buildings the average and high-rise buildings, the most appropriate solution is the arrangement of warm attics.At the same time the mouth of the ventilation ducts are displayed under the roof, and the air of the apartments attic warms up to 14-16 ° C.Hence evacuee air is removed through a vent shaft.A warm attic is less effective compared to heat exchangers, but allows you to keep the heat evacuated air with a small increase in the capital cost of construction.
to build a truly warm home, you must take into account the many nuances associated with volumetric-planning solutions, designing thermal protection of buildings and efficiency of engineering systems.This increase in thermal efficiency depends primarily on the use of technologies and materials that reduce the total heat loss, including - high-quality thermal insulation of the building envelope, thermal efficiency window systems and ventilation systems.Complex application of the above solutions can build a house with a stable temperature and humidity conditions and healthy climate