made from wood fortifications and bridges, tools and dwellings.Most of the products were of a purely practical importance, but in each of them the master sought to bring a particle of beauty.Wood is the best meet these aspirations: her warm shine, drawing, color and aroma are unique;it is strong enough to retain heat for a long time, well treated.Once in the hands of a master, like soul and becomes alive.
in Russia has long been used for the construction of the tree.It is perfect for areas with any climate.And today, this traditional material is often used in the construction of the beautiful and warm homes.Its special properties allow to achieve a high level of indoor comfort without the use of air conditioning.
Wooden houses in accordance with design features can be divided into several basi
- frame houses;
- home of an ordinary timber;
- log houses manual felling;
- houses made of logs and profiled bar.
They differ mainly in the way the construction of walls and used for this material.Let's try to briefly characterize each of these types of houses.For convenience, arrange them in order of increasing value.
Today, the Russian construction market many companies offer the consumer a frame houses made with different technologies (Canadian, Finnish and so on. D.).The difference between them is only to use various materials and composed of so-called "pie" the wall, but the essence is: lumber frame, lined with some material (wall paneling, siding and drywall t. D.) With a heater inside.Such houses are usually a few cheaper than other types of homes (here and further comparisons between different types of buildings should take into account that you can compare only one class of home comfort).They get very warm, however, most often inferior houses of logs and lumber in comfort and environmental friendliness due to the presence within the walls of synthetic materials, as well as shortness of air and moisture.We should not forget that over a log and timber indoors can vary up to 30% of air per day, and the unique properties of these materials allow to dry weather to give the accumulated moisture and damp contrary to absorb its surplus in the living room.That is why wooden houses differ a special microclimate and a high level of comfort.In frame houses of this level it is difficult to achieve.
next type of homes are houses made of logs.They tend to be 15-20% more expensive frame and fully enjoy all the benefits of natural wood as described above.The relative cheapness of these homes is determined by the transfer of the most labor-intensive manufacturing operations from the site of production, where it is much easier to do.A mount technology defined earlier - at the design stage.From the workshop to the construction site do not come blank and ready parts, which is a neat gathering.Round logs is relatively new material.Demand in recent years has grown considerably.Modern technologies allow to produce the product in the factory of large diameter (24-32 cm or more), do not yield to their physical and technical characteristics of the log, chopped by hand.Cylindering logs gives the building a unique beauty and elegance.Small wonder that in Europe, such houses are among the most expensive and prestigious.
log houses, until recently, was one of the most common types of wooden houses.Despite popular belief about their relative low cost, the actual cost of such a house built "turn key» & gt;often 10-15% higher than the cost of such a house built from logs.Many misleading the fact that he cant costs less.However, they forget that a simple timber does not have a thermal lock.Because of this, it is very difficult to insulate, t. K. Purging factor will always be several times higher than that of the wall built of logs manufactured correctly.In order to reduce heat losses in the lumber house is necessary to apply additional insulation and sheathing it inside and outside of siding, siding, or other material.
All these measures fully absorb savings generated on the acquisition of the timber and add the additional cost.How to find chicks hatched and is determined by the value of the home after it will be populated.Notwithstanding the foregoing, home from a bar is very well established in the conditions of our climate zone.After all, the tree itself is characterized by very low thermal conductivity.Wooden wall of 35 cm., Is equivalent in teplosberezheniyu brick, thickness of 1.5 meters.
And, of course, the most ancient and proven method of construction for thousands of years is a wooden house log cabin hand.Construction of the house is the most labor-intensive and time-consuming.Naturally, such a house would cost more than houses made of logs, as well as any product of manual work more machine stamping.If modern technology allow for finishing the house made of logs immediately after the assembly, the house must be felled by hand will stand at least a year.And the very cutting takes much more time and effort than folding "designer" from round logs.And the time - it's money.Yes, and salary for the time you have to pay.Good professional carpenter worthy of a good salary.
Of course, the above division of the houses on price categories rather arbitrary!There are firms that offer frame houses whose value far exceeds the cost of houses manual felling.But then, "Mercedes" of the middle class is often more expensive class car less prestigious firm.For the name to pay.
Considering the factor that those wishing to build a nice wooden house with every year becomes more and more, and most of them opt for logs, mainly as a wall materials in the future we will lead it exactly that type of houses.
which tree is best ?Before many developers there is a question of some kind of wood to build a house: pine, spruce and larch? Larch in this series is very.Without a doubt, this tree offers much greater strength and beauty of texture.Larch virtually unaffected by moisture.Supports wooden bridges over the river have always been built of larch or oak.Many bridges are gone, but the support is still standing almost damaged.Larch - a single tree, not rotting in the sea water.Larch wood has a narrow sapwood, which is removed when cylindering, and a log is not turning blue.Its resin has natural antiseptic properties and is not subject to the beetle infestation, which allows the use of larch wood without special treatment.There are also other unique properties: high fire resistance (twice higher than pine) and revitalizing effect on human body (in Siberian larch wood contain antioxidants, slowing the aging process and the occurrence of other diseases: in particular migraine).However, this material is relatively expensive and is not available to everyone.Therefore, most opt for pine and spruce.For some reason, many people prefer pine, fir skeptical about the option.Let's try to examine this issue in more detail.
Physical characteristics these species are very similar. Spruce has a slightly looser structure, but at the expense of somewhat warmer than the pine.With regard to the degree of exposure to external influences, the modern protective equipment (antiseptics) successfully solve this problem.
chemical compositions of spruce and pine as little than differ from each other.For example, pine contained 41.9% cellulose and 44.1% spruce.The pine lignin contained 25.5% and 28.9% in spruce.As you can see, the differences are not significant.Russian proverb says: "The hut of fir - heart healthy."Proverbs scratch wrote.Moreover, experience shows that the pine is much more common tobacco knots than spruce.Pine often affects blue (color of sapwood).Although it has little effect on the strength characteristics, but is unpleasant phenomenon, the fight against which requires additional manpower and resources.We will not reduce the value of pine as a building material, its effectiveness as such confirmed by the experience of centuries.Let's just say that spruce home for the same century, proved to be just as good.In fact, the durability of the house, in our opinion, is more dependent on the proper operation than the material of the walls.
As for blue, it is the bane of all conifers.We must be ready for it, from whatever tree you did not build your house.Avoid blue in the face without a log related activities impossible.Sapwood stains caused by many types of fungi.The optimum temperature for most species of fungi of blue 20- 27 "C, so it is advisable to put houses in winter. For the prevention of blue and blue with bleaching has elements of the structure can be used antiseptics. Zasinelaya wood in most cases characterized by an increased rate of water absorption and therefore impregnated with them is significantly betterthan healthy. In general, this is not much of a problem.
Domestic industry produces today, many high-performance whitening and antiseptic agents for wood in no way inferior to the best foreign analogues. If this should be considered one thing: it is desirable to cover the frame only after their assembly- without strong antiseptics for outdoor work (not to breathe then this muck indoors), and inside special structures for interior work. To protect the thermal lock (longitudinal groove logs), antiseptic impregnated packing material (jute, linen).Thus, we protect the house as much as possible from external influences, leaving him to stay environmentally friendly.
Flammability tree of course, also the lack of, but it can be corrected.Fire retardant compositions are widely used today in construction and can really make a fireproof timber, as is easily seen.In fact, the risk of fire caused by external factors rather than on the structure, and the fact that is located inside the premises: furniture, paper - all this quite easily ignited.There are cases when burnt out whole blocks of stone houses.At the same time, we can admire the wooden houses in Suzdal, Kizhi, Kostroma and other Russian cities, some of which are more than one hundred years old, and who experienced many thousands of their stone counterparts.
next question that confronts the developer: from some logs to build a house - or dry natural moisture ?First of all, let's start with the fact that the traditions of wooden architecture involve the use of timber for construction only natural humidity.After laying in the frame decreases to the equilibrium moisture content.The logs are reduced in volume under its own gravity and the overlying crowns more closely adjacent to each other, substantially reducing the coefficient of ventilation by walls.As a result, we get a solid wooden structure with maximum insulation performance.
The design of the log logs natural moisture content should not be a rigid attachment.During the first half or two years it will give the main shrinkage (5-7%), where nothing should interfere.Given that the shrinkage and swelling of the wood along the grain is significantly different from the transverse, all vertical structures should be fitted with compensators shrinkage.It allows to adjust the relative height of structures and maintain the correct geometry of the house.
logs fastened together in a staggered wooden pins with a diameter of 20 25 mm "are laid at a distance of no more than 1.5-2 meters apart.Cracks are afraid not.During the first year, during the shrinkage, the log begins to rapidly crack on the surface.After this is determined, and expands the main crack, which, as a rule, take place at the violations of the annual rings (district heat lock or compensatory cutting) and almost all the other cracks are tightened.Beam again becomes flat and smooth.
Wood drying chamber has a moisture content less than the equilibrium.Once we import it at the construction site, it is in contact with the air begins to rapidly absorb moisture.This can lead to distortion of logs.
pins on wooden logs are impossible to draw.They simply do not stand up and break.Therefore it is necessary instead to use a metal armature.Srub of these logs can not give a normal and natural shrinkage of the seal.On the contrary, the logs begin to swell, and is in the process, reverse the above: logs tend to bulge out of the framework.It has long been known for the ability of the wood, with the anguish of swelling, develop high pressures: water swellable wooden wedges splitting the stones.In order to keep such logs in the assembled state, are used steel flanges.We will not judge how justified this technology construction of wooden houses.But we know that for the builder, it is much more expensive traditional.Before trying to build a hut without iron nails.Wood with metal conflict.And the operation of our scientists have shown that high temperature drying results in reduction of mechanical properties of wood.The strength of pine decline: under compression along fibers on 0,8-8,7%, radial shearing at 1-12% and toughness at 5-10,5%.However, some firms now found a compromise and offer customers a so-called "dried" timber, although the humidity is below the natural, but slightly higher than equilibrium.
Here's one of the questions that often disturbs the future owner: of winter or summer wood will build his house ?This is due to the assumption that winter wood has a lower moisture content than the old, and therefore more suitable for building.We can disappoint you: the scientific data on the seasonal humidity changes the wood suggest that the highest humidity in the tree there is winter (November - February), and the lowest in summer (July-August).Humidity sapwood summer can be 25-50% lower than in the winter, and the humidity of the core (mature wood) during the year almost unchanged.Persons who doubt our words, read books offer Wood Science.Previously wood harvested in the winter because the peasants had more time to bring his sleigh was much easier than on a cart, and the possibility of contact with the ground, and, consequently, the possibility of infection by a fungus logs was minimal.