Although up to this time the widest spread in many countries had a mud brick, raw, often with the addition of clay to be cut straw, used in the construction of fired brick and dates back to ancient times (built in Egypt 3-2 nd millennium BC).
is particularly important brick in the architecture of Mesopotamia and ancient Rome, where brick (45h30h10) laid out complex designs, including arches, etc.A striking example of the use of a brick building in the Russian era of John III was the construction of walls and temples of the Moscow Kremlin, which was headed by Italian masters.Until XIX-century engineering bricks remained primitive and labor-intensive.
molded bricks by hand, dried only in the summer, fired in kilns, makeshift floor, laid out from the dried mud brick.In the middle of the XIX-th century were built kiln ring and belt press that led to a revolution in the technology of brick production.At the same time, there were glinoobrabatyvayuschie machines: runners, rollers, pug-mill.
expert tips on the bricks
When buying bricks require supporting documents: a certificate or a passport for the products.In the absence of such documents Brick is better not to be tempted.Do not buy a brick in the winter (even though it is cheaper), if the place where it will be stored throughout the winter, is not protected.With unprotected areas brick necessarily stolen.It's best to buy a brick before the construction season - in March-April, when its price has not yet started to rise.If you do not want to "drown out" do not make the exterior walls of a thickness of less than 2.5 in the brick (ie, 64 cm), otherwise the heat will go out of the house.
When buying imported brick, note European standards that do not always coincide with the domestic.Keep this in mind, using imported and Russian brick together.The thickness of the concrete elements (lintels, floor slabs) times the height of the domestic bricks.This is done to ensure that these elements are easily docked together.
What is considered a marriage in the process of making bricks?According to GOST marriage is burnout and incomplete combustion, and this brick is not recommended for sale.But the presence of calcareous inclusions GOST admits, although the owner of the brick of this, alas, is not easy.How do I know whether burnt red brick?If the core of brick more saturated colors than the "body" and the impact it rings, it is - a brick of good quality.
underburning .Unburned brick has a distinctive mustard color and kick thud.At low frost unburned brick, he is "afraid" of water.Do not want to winter in the house was cold and the rain washed away the facade?Then do not buy the pale brick.
burnout .Burnt through brick is formed by very high temperatures.Brick blackened, melted, losing exact dimensions, its "bursting" from the inside.But experts say that if the brick did not violate its shape and black he was only the core, it is, on the contrary, it is very strong, like an iron.Dead burned bricks can be taken, but only if its shape is not impaired.
Brick with "Quilted" .Lime incorporation (sometimes called "Quilted") - where they come from?Clay feed contains limestone.During the preparation of the raw material is crushed limestone.But if you stay at least polumillimetrovye grain - expect a trick.They gain moisture and "swell", chipping pieces of brick.If the depth is greater than 6 mm spall, a brick OTC marriage, if less - it put on sale.Facades of houses, built of such bricks, obtained ryabymi like "spotted with flies."Remember that brick with faster chip is destroyed.
Efflorescence .The most common and insidious marriage - efflorescence.Efflorescence are already evident on the brick wall in the form of white spots and stains (ie already after brick is laid).And when buying not guess - will efflorescence on this brick or not.They are formed as a result of the migration of salts from the masonry mortar, brick, ground water and even the air.About a brick near Moscow experts say that the amount of salt in it, as a rule, small.
How to protect yourself from efflorescence
1. Use a thick solution.
2. Do not spread the solution on the front of the brick.
3. Do not put a brick during rain and closed fresh masonry at night.
4. As soon as possible to sum up the house under the roof.
5. Cover the front protective structure.
But if after all the precautions efflorescence still there, do not worry.Builders assure that most of the efflorescence is washed off by rain in a year or two.If you do not want to wait, you can use folk remedies: a solution of acetic acid, 5-percent solution of hydrochloric acid or ammonia solution (vial in a bucket of water).Or you can buy in DIY stores special tools.Or, contact the company, which "will wash" your home from the salt and cover the front protective structure