Experts reveal the concept of sound insulation as a reduction of sound pressure waves passing through barrier walls, floor or ceiling.A sound wave in this case - is the noise generated by dozens of sources, ranging from car alarm or operating the machine and ending with water dripping from a leaky faucet closed.
are two main types of noise: air and structure.The propagation medium is the first air, the second - a solid body.Noise refers to the air, such as people talking in the next room or a working television.Structural noise can cause the floor to move furniture or hammering.The latter, incidentally, is among the most unpleasant of his mind - shock, which can be heard, even when you are at a considerable distance from the source (blows to
If the air noise is prevalent in offices, industrial premises in a much greater problem is the structure and types of stroke.For residential premises, given the highest demands on the level of sound insulation from the legislation relevant defense against all kinds of noise: loud music from neighbors and knock closing elevator doors.The Soviet Union paid little attention to soundproofing: enough to remember the acoustics in the "Khrushchev," where, in order that the neighbors did not hear conversations in the apartment, on the wall hung a carpet.Approximately the same attitude towards this issue prevailed in our country until very recently.And in vain, because the high level of noise at home and at work causes fatigue, irritation, and eventually all can lead to serious nervous disorders.
What should be isolated?
The choice of the soundproof material and technology depends entirely on the purpose of the room.Conventionally, there are the following categories: commercial, industrial and residential areas.
According to the norms of the current legislation, when insulation is necessary to follow certain standards.So, CH 2.2.4 / 126.96.36.1992-96 "Noise in the workplace, in residential and public buildings and residential areas" sets the allowable noise level for industrial premises - not more than 85 dB for office - no more than 60 dBfor residential - less than 55 dB during the day and 45 dB at night.In Moscow, the city developed their own building codes 2.04-97 "Acceptable levels of noise, vibration and sound insulation requirements in residential and public buildings", which impose even more stringent requirements for the level of sound insulation.
provide better measures for sound insulation facilities at the design stage of the building.For example, in apartment buildings, usually grouped rooms with high noise level (kitchen, bathroom) and have them closer to the flight of stairs and away from residential areas.
The practice of housing, there are four main areas of insulation: insulation of walls and interior partitions, protection of floors, ceilings and the joints with walls, doors (including the interior) and windows, sound engineering services, which can serve as conductors noise.This acoustic insulation materials must fulfill two main functions - to prevent fluctuations of the sound wave barrier (eg, interior partitions), and, if possible, absorb and dissipate sound wave.
As mentioned above, in the offices the main problem is the noise of the air.This stems from the common space, divided into rooms by partitions made of plasterboard - it is such a construction is now prevalent in the business center.Different types of partitions can have their index of sound insulation.The use of effective sound absorbing panels allows you to significantly increase the insulating properties of the structure.Thus, the main focus of sound insulation in offices is working on interior partitions and doors.Another trend - a struggle against external sources of noise.Materials and technology of sound insulation in this case is not much different from the insulation of residential buildings.
for insulation of industrial plants where the noise level can exceed safe for human health of 85 dB, the most relevant soundproofing equipment, which is a source of structural and impact noise.To this should be avoided in direct contact with the floor.In practice, this can be achieved by installing equipment on damping and anti-vibration pads or the creation of acoustic floating floor, has high sound absorption characteristics.In addition, the required sound insulation of walls and ceiling of the room sound absorption materials.This reduces the overall noise level to a safe point.The equipment that produces noise above 100 dB, it is best placed in separate rooms with a high level of sound insulation.
specific types of noise inherent in individual activities, their frequency and volume require a different approach to the problem of sound insulation of buildings, including the use of different sound-proof materials and technologies.This will be discussed further.
What materials are used for this purpose?
There are many soundproofing solutions, as well as materials with sound-absorbing properties.In the scope they can be divided into the following categories.This absorbent material used as an inner liner to provide the required space inside the room acoustics.The second group include insulation materials on the structural, including impact noise.These include rock wool insulation, technical cork, kremnezёmnoe fiber.Finally, the third category - the materials for fiber-based for protection against airborne noise, for example, rock wool insulation or felt.
For any of the facilities is a particular sound-proof material?Consider a few products and designs, in which they apply.
During the construction of residential, industrial and office space for the erection of walls, partitions, flat and pitched roofs with a small angle of inclination can used building material fiberboard.It is made from wood or synthetic fibers and cement, has a density of from 208 to 570 kg per m³.Fiberboard is material for permanent formwork, used for frame construction.One of its species - acoustic fiberboard with sound absorption coefficient of not less than 40% at the minimum thickness of the slab.It is, in particular, is used to generate acoustic ceilings.Today in Russia there is only one producer of this material - it's "Scientific-Production Company" Fibrolite. "
Due to the high, up to 99%, the coefficient of absorption, wide distribution received the materials of stone wool.In the form of plates of different thicknesses are used for soundproofing of premises of all types.Among them are versatile materials to improve the sound insulation of walls, floors and ceilings.For example, ROCKWOOL ACOUSTIC BATTS density of 40 kg / m3;structure using an index which provides insulation to 60 dB.Placed between the rack-mount frame profiles Drywall boards considerably increase the sound insulation index interior partitions in an office or apartment.They are also used when creating a reinforced concrete floor or on the beams of the ceiling.For acoustic ceiling material can be mounted directly on the ceiling or suspended under the surface of suspended ceilings.
In order to prevent the spread and impact of the structural noise in industrial facilities, office and residential premises of applied design "floating floor".It is based on an insulating material, which is placed concrete, ceramic tile or any other cover.The floor surface while separated from the walls with elastic inserts.Thus, the "floating floor" is completely cut off from the frame of the building insulation material, which absorbs the impact noise.When you create a design often used stone wool insulation, for example, specially designed for the creation of acoustic flooring slabs ROCKWOOL FLOOR Bats and a density of about 160 kg / m3.They are able to withstand a heavy load without shrinkage.
However, soundproofing walls, floors and ceilings is not enough, you must also pay attention to insulation of windows and doors.Modern windows are PVC profile installed in residential or office buildings, have high performance absorption.For example, the design of the windows Deutschmark KBE, depending on the model, provides a three- or five-chamber profile, which provides sound absorption of 35 to 55 dB.For comparison, the noise of the highway at rush hour is about 75 dB.In order to improve the sound insulating performance, the space between the panes is filled with inert gases, more often - argon.Its action is based on the fact that at the interface of glass and the inert gas is a reflection of the sound wave in the opposite direction.In industrial premises to establish better windows of aluminum profiles, which have high insulating characteristics but are more resistant to corrosion.
accordance with SNIP II-3-79, sound-proof door should detain not less than 26 dB.One of the most effective examples of this product are the doors of German firm "Westag & amp;Getalit AG ", which, depending on the model, delay of 27 to 42 dB.The doors have a multi-layer structure: the outer layer - it's a laminate, then layer MDF (wood-stove struzhkovogo) and, finally, a layer of particle board (hardboard).Between the layers of sound-reflecting film runs.In addition, the doors are equipped with an automatic magnetic doorsteps to seal with the floor.
In order to close the gap between the door and the door frame and thereby increase the insulating properties are applied gaskets are installed around the perimeter of the door frame.Experts say the quality of Swedish rubber linings of Varnamo elastomeric materials that provide a high level of sound absorption.
In offices, administrative buildings, shops and homes (as interior or balcony) often install the doors of PVC profile.They have good characteristics absorption due to two-, three-chambered or multi-pane windows construction with sound-insulating material.For example, plastic doors Veka delay to 28 dB.
good solution for acoustic ceiling installation is a stretch ceiling.Many manufacturers pay great attention to sound-absorbing properties of its products.For example, the product of the Swiss company Clipso provides sound absorption coefficient of up to 70% depending on the sound frequency.Necessary is
and sound engineering systems, which under certain conditions can be a source of noise up to 80 dB.An effective measure for soundproofing ventilation systems, air conditioning and air heating is the lining ducts soundproof material.Thanks to the excellent sound absorption (60 dB) and low weight for most these purposes the stone wool insulation.
Noise water heating systems, water supply and sanitation depends on many factors: this is the material of which are manufactured pipe and fittings, gasket seat Communications availability of sound bridges in the close contact with the walls of pipelines or ceilings.The main measures to improve the sound insulation of communication this type is their design with the expectation that the pipes do not pass through walls between apartments.Much more rational in terms of insulation guide them through the floor decks through elastic cartridges made of porous polyethylene and other elastic materials.This will help avoid gaps, and through close contact with the floor slabs to facilitate the dissemination of structural and airborne noise.
In conclusion, I would again point out that, given the negative impact of air and structural noise on the human body, soundproof rooms is one of the most important moments of the construction of buildings of any type.Today the building materials market offers many effective solutions to the problem of sound insulation.Existing materials and technologies make it possible to provide the level of sound insulation appropriate and even exceeding the figures specified in the building regulations