Since then much has changed - became known the amazing properties of minerals and rocks.Every day we found stones - large and small, polished and "wild", recycled and natural.Nature gave people a wonderful material, and we gratefully accepted this generous gift.
We live in a concrete jungle?
stone is used almost in all stages of construction - from the construction of the foundation to the interior design.Volcanic tuff quarry stone, limestone, quartzite, sandstone, gravel - without these "workers" modern types of stone construction is unthinkable.
And the stone is often not only a supporting function - fillings and impurities, but he is a full building material.Take, for example, crushed stone.His uncouth lump can often be seen in the masonry foundation or walls of the house.Booth, due to its rough simplicity, creates a special, emphasized close to nature, the image of the building.Laying of rubble incredibly durable.
Indeed, the more reliable the stone material for walls of our "castle" is har
So, stone, like centuries ago, gives people the reliability and steadfastness native walls.Moreover, the warmth and safety in the home, too, gives us exactly it.Based on the rocks produce modern high quality insulation materials.In most cases, these are used for basalt, porphyry, at least - diabase, gabbro.It is a stone wool.
technology of its production was "podsmotrena" from nature.Scientists are watching volcanic eruptions in Hawaii, found fiber material with excellent thermal insulation properties.It turned out that this material is formed by the interaction of lava with air.Natural processes are able to reproduce in an industrial environment.
Today stone wool takes a few companies.The leader in its issue of ROCKWOOL.Kamennovatnaya insulation under this brand name used in the construction of buildings for different purposes for more than 70 years.
Stone wool is used mainly for thermal insulation, sound insulation and fire protection - facilities, pipelines and air ducts, ships and oil platforms.It is environmentally friendly, because made of natural raw materials, and not least, it is non-combustible material.Products can withstand temperatures of up to 1000º C.
Stone - is not only the reliability, durability and safety.About the aesthetic side also should not be forgotten.Some surfaces made of natural stone can be admired forever, like a starry sky.It is not surprising that the noble granite has long been used for cladding facades.For these purposes are limestone, sandstone, travertine, gabbro, labradorite.
Inside the stone houses, too often occupies a very honorable place.Floor marble tile looks great in the lobby, bathroom or on the veranda.The kitchen countertop will last an eternity of granite slab.Marble window sills look stylish and modern.By the way, a variety of colors and patterns very much like marble interior designers.They often decorate fireplaces.
Manufacturers fireplaces also appreciate the granite and onyx.Sometimes in the fireplace actually used malachite.This mineral can be almost any shade of green - from aqua to deep black and green.Columns, railings and countertop lined malachite, filled with luxury.Small decorative items made of stone - vases, lamps, boxes - elegant and give the interior elegance.
So nothing sometimes called a stone cold and heartless.He gives us his reliability, warmth and beauty.And it is precisely in every modern house has something made of stone in whole or in part.
Going beyond the threshold of his home, we did not leave the world of the stone.Each of us, without thinking about it, carries a few pebbles.
example, 17. Lovers of good old mechanics familiar with these numbers, "17 Stones" or "23 stone."These labels are on mechanical wrist watches.The stones in question, - rubies.They can be seen by opening the watch.Caption about stones means that the mechanism used ruby bearings, which are much more durable metal.
not surprising, because the ruby in hardness is second only to diamond.In addition, the stone has a terrific property to keep the air around its surface due to static electricity.The air serves as a "lubricant" for rotating parts, which provides a mechanism for an unusually smooth ride.
The more hours of stones, so they are more reliable.Now watchmaking use artificial minerals.They learned to produce in the early 20th century.The physical properties of the synthetic sapphires are no different from natural and more accessible.
Thus, the holder of a mechanical watch is with 4, 13 or even 23 stone.What else is in possession of modern man?Many, leaving home, be sure to put in your pocket or bag lighter.Among the mechanisms of gas lighters there are those that include a stone - a small quartz crystal.This type of lighter is called "piezo".The fact that the quartz has a piezoelectric - capable when exposed externally to change its crystal lattice and thereby give an electric charge.From this discharge between the electrodes of a spark occurs, from which the gas is ignited.
Such lighters are reliable: provide as much as a piezoelectric element itself.Piezo lighters Sarime, Ronson or, for example, Colibri is no less famous classic gasoline lighter Zippo.
We carry with stones not only due to their unique physical properties.Ancient tradition to adorn themselves with stones to this day revere and women and men.
malachite, jasper, tiger's eye, aquamarine craftsmen create beautiful necklaces, bracelets, pendants, pendants.Fantasy designers working with semi-precious stones, unlimited: they adorn keychains, bags, clothes and shoes.
way than semi-precious stones precious worse?Just onyx, turquoise, jade and other stones, which we used to call semi-precious, naturally more common than rubies and diamonds.
to gems include only a few representatives of the kingdom of Stone: diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald and pearl.Jewelers impose stricter requirements for them.According to them, a beautiful gem - a clear as a tear burning inner "fire" mineral without cracks and foreign inclusions.However, in the hands of the master minor defects, such as bubbles, in turn lack of merit of the stone.Such a stone after cutting becomes a personality that in jewelry is valued above all else.
Besides the beauty, jewelers require stones of the same properties as that of physics - strength and hardness.And rightly so: given the cost of jewelry, I want to serve a minimum of eternity.
At the service of progress
Scientists, in contrast to the jewelers, the beauty of the stone a little interesting.Another thing - strength.
the hardest mineral on Earth - Diamond.It is no coincidence the name is derived from the Greek word "Adamas" which means "invincible."What "wins" diamond?At home - glass and tile.With this excellent job we know diamond glass cutter.
The metal industry is much more serious: diamond made of saws, chisels, polishing paste.When drilling hard rock "Invincible" is also coming to the aid of man, of his produce crowns for drilling.
Rubin - also excellent abrasive.In an industry often use ruby wheels, powders and pastes.
the benefit of technical progress are only stones - those who have no aesthetic value: the diamond grit, "board" black diamonds "Carbonado".Rubin replaces unattractive appearance corundum.
Besides strength, minerals have many interesting properties that are used in industry.Some minerals are able to absorb gases and liquids.Just one example - zeolite.He has a porous internal structure of cavities and channels that scientists have learned to use as "molecular sieves" for cleaning oil and gas.This natural adsorbent is the mass of applications - from water purification to recovery of agricultural soils.
Since ancient times, many people used zeolites for treatment of diseases of the stomach and intestines.Modern pharmacists also use this mineral: it is based on the popular drug made "Smecta".
So treated stones really makes sense.Quartz lamps - another excellent example.Quartz glass, which is used in such lamps is different from the normal that passes the infrared part of the spectrum of light.Ultraviolet beneficial effect on humans.Quartz lamps cure diseases of the joints, nervous system and respiratory tract.This lamp helps with skin problems.In addition, it can help disinfect indoor air, particularly important during epidemics of influenza.
Ultraviolet light is needed not only in medicine.In chemistry and mineralogy it is often necessary to study the matter in the ultraviolet.Philatelists in the light of a quartz lamp considering the brand, determining their authenticity.
can cite dozens if not hundreds of examples of minerals in science and industry.Microelectronics, optics, acoustics, radio - areas of human activity, which is used stones are countless.
So, the stone is a man in many areas - from everyday life to a serious science.Shining rubies and diamonds, the warmth and comfort of home, and finally, technological progress - all this gives us a stone.Hard to imagine what other properties of minerals, scientists discover.One thing is clear: the friendship of man and stone - is here to stay.